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Roman Emperor
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Emperor

Roman emperors ruled over the Imperial Roman Empire starting with Augustus from 27 BCE and continuing in the Western Roman Empire until the late 5th century CE and in the Eastern Roman Empire up to the mid-15th century CE. The emperors would...
Visual Chronology of Roman Emperors: Augustus to Constantine
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Visual Chronology of Roman Emperors: Augustus to Constantine

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty Augustus 16 Jan 27 BCE - 19 Aug 14 CE Tiberius 18 Sep 14 CE - 16 Mar 37 CE Caligula 18 Mar 37 CE - 24 Jan 41 CE Claudius 25 Jan 41 CE - 13 Oct 54 CE Nero 13 Oct 54 CE - 11 Jun...
Chinese Emperor
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Chinese Emperor

The emperors of ancient China had tremendous power and responsibility. Called the 'Son of Heaven', he (and once she) was given a divine right to rule over all people but was expected to promote their best interest and not his own. An absolute...
The Barracks Emperors
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Barracks Emperors

The “Barracks Emperors” is a term coined by later historians referring to the Roman emperors who were chosen and supported by the army during the period known as the Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284...
Mandate of Heaven
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven (Tianming), also known as Heaven's Mandate, was the divine source of authority and the right to rule of China's early kings and emperors. The ancient god or divine force known as Heaven or Sky had selected this particular...
Yongle Emperor
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Yongle Emperor

The Yongle Emperor (aka Chengzu or Yung Lo, r. 1403-1424 CE) was the third ruler of the Chinese Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 CE). Inheriting a stable state thanks to the work of his father, the Hongwu Emperor (r. 1368-1398 CE), Yongle made lasting...
Jianwen Emperor
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Jianwen Emperor

The Jianwen Emperor (r. 1398-1402 CE) was the second ruler of the Chinese Ming dynasty (1368-1644 CE). Following a civil war and Jianwen's mysterious disappearance, his uncle took over the throne and ruled as the Yongle Emperor (r. 1403-1424...
Titus (Roman Emperor)
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Titus (Roman Emperor)

Titus was Roman emperor from 79 to 81 CE. On June 24, 79 CE Titus Flavius Vespasianus succeeded his father Vespasian (r. 69-79 CE) as emperor of the Roman Empire. Prior to his ascension to the throne, he was considered by many as “…unpopular...
Emperor Taizong of Tang
Definitionby Emily Mark

Emperor Taizong of Tang

Taizong (birth name, Li-Shimin, l. 598-649 CE, r. 626-649 CE) was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty and is considered one of the greatest rulers in Chinese history for his reforms of the government and the laws, his religious tolerance...
Hongwu Emperor
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Hongwu Emperor

The Hongwu Emperor (r. 1368-1398 CE) was the founder of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644 CE) which took over from the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1276-1368 CE) as the rulers of China. Born a peasant with the name Zhu Yuanzhang, the future emperor led...
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