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Battle of Cannae - Destruction of the Roman Army
Imageby The Department of History, United States Military Academy

Battle of Cannae - Destruction of the Roman Army

Map of the Battle of Cannae showing how Hannibal encircles and defeats the Roman army.
Legio IX Hispana
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Legio IX Hispana

Legio IX Hispana served with Julius Caesar in Gaul and against Pompey in the Civil Wars. Later, it fought alongside Augustus in his Cantabrian Wars and was one of the four legions Claudius took with him in his invasion of Britain in 43 CE...
Legions of Spain, Roman Africa & Egypt
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Legions of Spain, Roman Africa & Egypt

The legions of Spain, Roman Africa, and Egypt did not see the intensity of action that prevailed elsewhere in Europe. However, the presence of these four legions - VII Gemina, IX Hispana, XXII Deiotariana, and II Traiana Fortis - was still...
Antonine Plague
Definitionby John Horgan

Antonine Plague

The Antonine Plague, sometimes referred to as the Plague of Galen, erupted in 165 CE, at the height of Roman power throughout the Mediterranean world during the reign of the last of the Five Good Emperors, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (161-180...
Roman Empire
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire, at its height (c. 117 CE), was the most extensive political and social structure in western civilization. By 285 CE the empire had grown too vast to be ruled from the central government at Rome and so was divided by Emperor...
Legio X Fretensis
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Legio X Fretensis

Legio X Fretensis was a legion of the Roman army formed by either Julius Caesar or Augustus. The legion spent most of its existence in the East, primarily in Judea. It participated in Corbulo’s two Armenian campaigns as well as Vespasian...
Roman Science
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Science

The Romans assimilated earlier Greek science for their own purposes, evaluating and then accepting or rejecting that which was most useful, much as they did in other fields such as warfare, art, and theatre. This assimilation of Greek thought...
Legio V Alaudae
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Legio V Alaudae

Legio V Alaudae, referenced in early accounts only as the "Fifth", was one of the many legions of the Roman army that helped Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) to achieve success as a military commander in Gaul, Spain, and Africa. Later stationed...
Legions of the Rhine Frontier
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Legions of the Rhine Frontier

After Julius Caesar’s (100-44 BCE) conquest of Gaul, Roman legions pushed the borders of the Roman Empire’s frontier to the banks of the Rhine River. Augustus (r. 27 BCE - 14 CE) divided the newly acquired region into three provinces: Gallia...
Totila
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Totila

Totila (birth name, Baduila-Badua r. 541-552 CE) was the last great king of the Ostrogoths in Italy. He was the nephew of the Gothic king Ildibad who was succeeded by Eraric the Rugian (d. 541 CE). The Goths of Italy felt that Eraric was...