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The Hundred Years' War: Consequences & Effects
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Hundred Years' War: Consequences & Effects

The Hundred Years' War was fought intermittently between England and France from 1337 to 1453 CE and the conflict had many consequences, both immediate and long-lasting. Besides the obvious death and destruction that many of the battles...
Battle of Teutoburg Forest
Articleby Karen Schousboe

Battle of Teutoburg Forest

At the Battle of Teutoburg Forest (aka Battle of Varus), c. 9 CE, a combined force of Germans annihilated a Roman army consisting of three legions including three squadrons of cavalry and six cohorts of auxiliary troops. As some soldiers...
Wine Culture in the Hellenistic Mediterranean
Articleby Branko van Oppen

Wine Culture in the Hellenistic Mediterranean

The culture of drinking wine was enjoyed throughout the Mediterranean world, and what is true now was true in antiquity, too: wine is always good business. The Hellenistic Period (c. 335-30 BCE), between Alexander the Great...
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Articleby Brent D. Shaw, Princeton University

Cult and Belief in Punic and Roman Africa

This is a second attempt at a synthesis of the main problems for the forthcoming Cambridge History of Ancient Religions. The problems are complex and still threaten to overwhelm. This version remains a cri de coeur: any helpful comments...
First Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095-1102 CE) was a military campaign by western European forces to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim control. Conceived by Pope Urban II following an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos...
Dougga/Thugga - Tunisia - UNESCO World Heritage Site
Videoby THEWORLDOFTRAVEL

Dougga/Thugga - Tunisia - UNESCO World Heritage Site

Ferries to Tunisia: http://ferriestunisia.com/ Dougga or Thugga (Arabic: دقة‎) is an ancient Roman city in northern Tunisia, included in a 65 hectare archaeological site. UNESCO qualified Dougga as a World Heritage Site in 1997, believing...
Third Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Third Crusade

The Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE) was launched to retake Jerusalem after its fall to the Muslim leader Saladin in 1187 CE. The Crusade was led by three European monarchs, hence its other name of 'the Kings' Crusade'. The three leaders were...
Second Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Second Crusade

The Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE) was a military campaign organised by the Pope and European nobles to recapture the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia which had fallen in 1144 CE to the Muslim Seljuk Turks. Despite an army of 60,000 and the presence...
Thebes (Egypt)
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Thebes (Egypt)

Thebes was the capital of Egypt during the period of the New Kingdom (c.1570-c.1069 BCE) and became an important center of worship of the god Amun (also known as Amon or Amen, a combination of the earlier gods Atum and Ra). Its sacred name...
Early Dynastic Period In Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Early Dynastic Period In Egypt

The Early Dynastic Period in Egypt (c. 3150 - c. 2613 BCE) is the beginning of the historical era of the country during which the regions of Upper Egypt (south) and Lower Egypt (north) were united as one country under a centralized government...