Alexander Helios (40 BCE – c. late 1st century BCE) was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, the second oldest son of Cleopatra VII (69 BCE – 30 BCE) and the twin brother of Cleopatra Selene II (40 BCE – 5 BCE). He spent the majority of his...
Siege of Rhodes, 305-304 BCE
Illustration of the Siege of Rhodes (305-304 BCE) by Zvonimir Grbasic. Courtesy of Ancient Warfare Magazine / Karwansaray Publishers.
Hypatia of Alexandria
Hypatia of Alexandria (c. 370 CE - March 415 CE) was a female philosopher and mathematician, born in Alexandria, Egypt possibly in 370 CE (although some scholars cite her birth as c. 350 CE). Little is known of her life but her dramatic death...
Hellenistic Successor Kingdoms c. 301 BCE
A map illustrating the Hellenistic World and the successor kingdoms of the Diadochi (Alexander the Great's successors) c. 301 BCE.
Harbour & Lighthouse of Alexandria
Depiction of the harbour of Alexandria (Egypt) as it may have appeared after the completion of the Lighthouse of Alexandria c. 280 BCE. From the game Old World.
King Ergamenes (also known as King Arkamani I, r. 295-275 BCE) was the greatest king of the city of Meroe, Kingdom of Kush (located in modern-day Sudan) who broke free from Egyptian dominance to help direct a wholly distinct culture. The...
Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare
In the search for ever more impressive and lethal weapons to shock the enemy and bring total victory the armies of ancient Greece, Carthage, and even sometimes Rome turned to the elephant. Huge, exotic, and frightening the life out of an...
The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire
The battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BCE concluded the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE) and consolidated Rome's power in the Mediterranean, finally resulting in Greece becoming a province of Rome in 146 BCE. This engagement is sometimes...
Cleopatra Selene II
Cleopatra Selene II (40 - c. 5 BCE) was a member of the Ptolemaic Dynasty who became the queen of Mauretania upon her marriage to King Juba II of Numidia (48 BCE - 23 CE). Though more obscure than her famous mother, Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE...
Alexandros I Balas
Alexandros I Balas was a Seleucid king from 152 BC to 145 BCE. As the Seleucid king Demetrius I Soter (162-150 BCE) became more and more unpopular due to his arrogance and drunkenness, it was quite an easy task for the rival kingdoms, such...