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Chaucer's The Book of the Duchess Full Text & Summary
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Chaucer's The Book of the Duchess Full Text & Summary

The Book of the Duchess is the first major work of the English poet Geoffrey Chaucer (l. c. 1343-1400 CE), best known for his masterpiece The Canterbury Tales, composed in the last twelve years of his life and left unfinished at his death...
Rome's Response to the Spread of Christianity
Articleby Rebecca Denova

Rome's Response to the Spread of Christianity

During the 1st century CE, a sect of Jews in Jerusalem claimed that their teacher, Jesus of Nazareth, was the 'messiah' of Israel. 'Messiah' meant 'anointed one', or someone chosen by the God of Israel to lead when God would intervene in...
Twelve Greatest Illuminated Manuscripts
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Greatest Illuminated Manuscripts

Illuminated manuscripts are, as their name suggests, hand-made books illumined by gold and silver ink. They were produced in Western Europe between c. 500 and c. 1600 CE and their subject matter is usually Christian scripture, practice, and...
Temple of Athena Nike
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Temple of Athena Nike

The Temple of Athena Nike, on the southwest bastion of the Acropolis, is smaller than the other buildings behind it but no less impressive. It was completed in 420 BCE during the restoration of Athens after the Persian invasion of 480 BCE...
A Brief History of Veterinary Medicine
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

A Brief History of Veterinary Medicine

The English word 'veterinarian' as defining one who provides medical care to animals, comes from the Latin verb veheri meaning “to draw” (as in "pull") and was first applied to those who cared for “any animal that...
Ten Should-Be Famous Women of Early Christianity
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ten Should-Be Famous Women of Early Christianity

Women feature prominently in the gospels and Book of Acts of the Christian New Testament as supporters of Jesus' ministry. The most famous of these is Mary Magdalene, most likely an upper-class woman of means instead of the prostitute label...
Early Judaism
Articleby William Brown

Early Judaism

During the period of early Judaism (6th century BCE - 70 CE), Judean religion began to develop ideas which diverged significantly from 10th-to-7th-centuries BCE Israelite and Judean religion. In particular, this period marks a significant...
Sack of Rome 410 CE
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Sack of Rome 410 CE

In August of 410 CE Alaric the Gothic king accomplished something that had not been done in over eight centuries: he and his army entered the gates of imperial Rome and sacked the city. Although the city and, for a time, the Roman Empire...
Hygieia, the Goddess of Health
Articleby Mark Beumer

Hygieia, the Goddess of Health

Modern medicine has its origin in the ancient world. The oldest civilizations used magic and herbs to cure their sick people, but they also used religion to free them from harm and to protect their health. The medical care of today has its...
Ghosts in Ancient Japan
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Ghosts in Ancient Japan

Ghosts (obake or yurei) appear in ancient Japanese folklore and literature, usually in moral tales designed to both warn and entertain but they were also an important element of ancestor worship. If the deceased members of a family were not...
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