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Early Christianity
Articleby Rebecca Denova

Early Christianity

Emerging from a small sect of Judaism in the 1st century CE, early Christianity absorbed many of the shared religious, cultural, and intellectual traditions of the Greco-Roman world. In traditional histories of Western culture, the emergence...
The Origin of Satan
Articleby Rebecca Denova

The Origin of Satan

Satan, or the Devil, is one of the best-known characters in the Western traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Surprisingly, this entity was a late-comer in the ancient world. Satan, as a totally evil being, is nowhere to be found...
Twelve Famous Women of the Middle Ages
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Famous Women of the Middle Ages

Women in the Middle Ages were frequently characterized as second-class citizens by the Church and the patriarchal aristocracy. Women's status was somewhat elevated in the High and Late Middle Ages when the cult of the Virgin Mary, combined...
Greek Mathematics
Articleby Cristian Violatti

Greek Mathematics

The mathematicians of ancient Greece made a hugely significant contribution to world thought and all practical subjects which depend on that intellectual basis, from geometry to engineering, astronomy to design. Influenced initially by...
Ten Pilgrim Facts You Need to Know
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ten Pilgrim Facts You Need to Know

The story of the pilgrims of Plymouth Colony is well known regarding the basic facts: they sailed on the Mayflower, arrived off the coast of Massachusetts on 11 November 1620 CE, came ashore at Plymouth Rock, half of them died the first winter...
The Battle of Pelusium: A Victory Decided by Cats
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Pelusium: A Victory Decided by Cats

The ancient Egyptians had a great reverence for life in all its forms. Life had been given by the gods and reverence for it extended beyond human beings to all living things. Although the Egyptians did occasionally eat meat, and their royalty...
Early Muslim Conquests (622-656 CE)
Articleby Syed Muhammad Khan

Early Muslim Conquests (622-656 CE)

Islam arose as a religious and socio-political force in Arabia in the 7th century CE (610 CE onwards). The Islamic Prophet Muhammad (l. 570-632 CE), despite facing resistance and persecution, amassed a huge following and started building...
The Mongol Invasion of Europe
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Mongol Invasion of Europe

The Mongol invasions of Russia and Eastern Europe occurred first with a brief sortie in 1223 CE and then again in a much larger campaign between 1237 CE and 1242 CE. The Mongols, seemingly coming from nowhere and quickly gaining a reputation...
Food in an English Medieval Castle
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Food in an English Medieval Castle

If one was looking to enjoy a fine meal in the medieval world then the best place to find a handsomely laid dinner table was in the local castle. There, in the magnificent Great Hall, feasts were regularly served for the local lord and his...
Causes of the Hundred Years' War
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Causes of the Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) was an intermittent conflict fought between England and France that started when king Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE) squabbled with Philip VI of France (r. 1328-1350 CE) over feudal rights concerning...
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