Unam Sanctam: Spiritual Authority & the Medieval Church
The medieval Church developed and retained its power by encouraging the innate human fear of death and the Church's vision of itself as the only path to salvation from hell. The pagan systems of the past all had some version of judgment after...
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine (l. c. 1122-1204 CE) was one of the most impressive and powerful figures of the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) – male or female – whose influence shaped the politics, art, medieval literature, and perception of women...
Battle of Crécy
The Battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346 CE saw an English army defeat a much larger French force in the first great battle of the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE). Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE) and his son Edward the Black...
The Great Swamp Fight: The Bloodiest Day of King Philip's War
In December 1675 CE, in the midst of King Philip's War, an army of Puritan colonists made a preemptive strike against the neutral Narragansett tribe. Their desperate battle in the snowy wilderness of Rhode Island became a touchstone in the...
The Sudbury Fight, 1676: A Decisive Native American Victory in King Philip's War
On April 21st 1676 CE, a company of eighty Massachusetts militiamen fought to the death against a Native American army five hundred strong in one of the climactic battles of King Philip's War.
The Seleucid Empire (312-63 BCE) was the vast political entity established by Seleucus I Nicator (“Victor” or “Unconquered”, l. c. 358-281 BCE, r. 305-281 BCE), one of the generals of Alexander the Great who claimed a part of his empire after...
Battle of the Granicus
The Battle of the Granicus in May 334 BCE was Alexander the Great's (356-323 BCE) first major victory against the forces of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexander had crossed the Hellespont with his combined Macedonian and Greek forces and stepped...
Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare
In the search for ever more impressive and lethal weapons to shock the enemy and bring total victory the armies of ancient Greece, Carthage, and even sometimes Rome turned to the elephant. Huge, exotic, and frightening the life out of an...
King Philip's War: The Most Important American War You've Never Heard Of
A generation after the first Thanksgiving, the sachem of the Wampanoag led a coalition of Native American tribes to battle against the ever-encroaching European colonists of New England.
Faces of Roman Emperors: Imperial Crisis & the Barracks Emperors
A series of facial reconstructions of Roman emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 CE), including the Gordian Emperors. These so-called "Barracks emperors" seized power during a time of turmoil, and their reigns...