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Carthaginian Naval Warfare
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Naval Warfare

The Carthaginians were famed in antiquity for their seafaring skills and innovation in ship design. The empire their navy protected stretched from Sicily to the Atlantic coast of Africa. Able to match the tyrants of Sicily and the Hellenistic...
The Grand Strategy of Classical Sparta
Articleby Paul Rahe

The Grand Strategy of Classical Sparta

In ancient Lacedaemon, as in all enduring political communities, there was a symbiotic relationship between the form of government chosen, the way of life that this form of government fostered, and the grand strategy that the community gradually...
Achaemenid Kings List & Commentary
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Achaemenid Kings List & Commentary

The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) was the first great Persian political entity in Western and Central Asia which stretched, at its peak, from Asia Minor to the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia through Egypt. It was founded by Cyrus II (the...
Hellenistic Warfare
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Hellenistic Warfare

When Alexander the Great died in 323 BCE, he left behind an empire devoid of leadership. Without a named successor or heir, the old commanders simply divided the kingdom among themselves. For the next three decades, they fought a lengthy...
Rumi
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Rumi

Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi (also given as Jalal ad-did Muhammad Balkhi, best known as Rumi, l. 1207-1273 CE) was a Persian Islamic theologian and scholar but became famous as a mystical poet whose work focuses on the opportunity for a meaningful...
Dying Persian
Imageby Mark Cartwright

Dying Persian

A marble head depicting a dying Persian. 2nd century CE Roman copy of a Greek 3rd century BCE original. From the Domus Tiberiana, Rome. (Forum Museum, Rome)
Derbent
Definitionby James Blake Wiener

Derbent

Derbent (sometimes "Derbend" or "Darbend") is an ancient city located along the Caspian Sea in what is present-day Russia. Although the area in and around Derbent has been continuously inhabited since at least the 8th...
Persepolis
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Persepolis

Persepolis was the capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire from the reign of Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE) until its destruction in 330 BCE. Its name comes from the Greek Perses-polis (Persian City), but the Persians knew it as Parsa...
Yorks v Lancasters - The Wars of the Roses
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Yorks v Lancasters - The Wars of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a four-decade struggle between two branches of the descendants of Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE). These two family groups: the Lancasters and Yorks, would swap places on the throne of England...
Omar Khayyam
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Omar Khayyam

Omar Khayyam (also given as Umar Khayyam, l. 1048-1131 CE) was a Persian polymath, astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher but is best known in the West as a poet, the author of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. His famous work has been embraced...
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