Macedonia under Philip II
Map of the Kingdom of Macedon and its expansions at the death of Philip II in 336 BC. Based on R. Ginouvès et al., La Macédoine, Paris, 1992.
Macedonian Gold Stater
Macedonian gold stater from the reign of Philip II, 359-356 BCE. O: Head of Apollo. R: Charioteer driving a racing biga.
Alexander III of Scotland
Alexander III of Scotland reigned from 1249 to 1286 CE. Succeeding his father Alexander II of Scotland (r. 1214-1249 CE) at the age of eight, the young king's early reign was blighted by rivalries between his nobles, a situation made more...
Alexander II of Scotland
Alexander II of Scotland reigned from 1214 to 1249 CE. Succeeding his father William I of Scotland (r. 1165-1214 CE), Alexander supported the northern barons in England against the unpopular King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE) and so contributed...
Great Military Commanders from Antiquity
In antiquity, certain military commanders were so formidable on the battlefield that they were responsible for the rise and fall of civilizations. Epaminondas saw off mighty Sparta and almost single-handedly gave Greek Thebes its one and...
Alexander the Great [Profile View]
A bust of Alexander the Great, 2nd-1st century BCE. Said to be from Alexandria, Egypt. (The British Museum, London).
Alexander the Great and Hellenization in the 4th Century BCE
Alexander the Great was the son of Philip II of Macedon and the man who started the hellenistic era during the 4th century BCE. After inheriting the Macedonian Empire when Philip II died, Alexander the Great extended it into the largest empire...
Egypt is a country in North Africa, on the Mediterranean Sea, and is home to one of the oldest civilizations on earth. The name 'Egypt' comes from the Greek Aegyptos which was the Greek pronunciation of the ancient Egyptian name 'Hwt-Ka-Ptah'...
Phoenicia was an ancient civilization composed of independent city-states located along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea stretching through what is now Syria, Lebanon and northern Israel. The Phoenicians were a great maritime people, known...
Ancient Asia Minor is a geographic region located in the south-western part of Asia comprising most of what is present-day Turkey. The earliest reference to the region comes from tablets of the Akkadian Dynasty (2334-2083 BCE) where it is...