Arsinoe II Philadelphus
Arsinoe II (l. c. 318/311 - c. 270/268 BCE), daughter of Ptolemy I became one of the most enduring figures of the Lagid or Ptolemaic Dynasty and left an undeniable mark in the historical evidence. She was married three times; first to Alexander...
Portrait of Ptolemy I or II of Egypt
This limestone portrait from the Early Ptolemaic Period (323-246 BCE) depicts either Ptolemy I or Ptolemy II of Egypt. Exact provenance is unknown. (Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto)
The Extent of the Roman Empire
Time has seen the rise and fall of a number of great empires - the Babylonian, the Assyrian, the Egyptian, and lastly, the Persian. Regardless of the size or skill of their army or the capabilities of their leaders, all of these empires...
Soldiers and Ghosts: A History of Battle in Classical Antiquity
J. E. Lendon in his book, Soldiers and Ghosts: A History of Battle in Classical Antiquity, uses Greek and Roman culture to explain fundamental changes in the conduct of war. Lendon persuasively argues that competition and an obsession with...
The Crisis of the Third Century
The Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE) was the period in the history of the Roman Empire during which it splintered into three separate political entities: the Gallic Empire, the Roman Empire, and...
The Plymouth Colony (1620-1691 CE) was the first English settlement in the region of modern-day New England in the United States, settled by the religious separatists known as the “pilgrims” who crossed the Atlantic Ocean on the...
King Philip's War
King Philip’s War (also known as Metacom’s War, 1675-1678) was a conflict in New England between a coalition of Native American tribes organized under the command of Metacom (also known as King Philip, l. 1638-1676), chief of the Wampanoag...
The Barracks Emperors
The “Barracks Emperors” is a term coined by later historians referring to the Roman emperors who were chosen and supported by the army during the period known as the Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284...
Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab ruled as emperor of the Roman Empire briefly from 244 CE to 249 CE. In 244 CE Roman emperor Gordian III responded to an uprising in the eastern provinces instigated by the Persian king Shapur. Under the superb leadership of...
Death of King Philip or Metacom
An early 20th-century illustration showing the death of King Philip, aka Metacom (l. 1638-1676) who led a coalition of Native American tribes in King Philip’s War (aka Metacom’s War, 1675-1678) against English colonists.