Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine (l. c. 1122-1204 CE) was one of the most impressive and powerful figures of the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) – male or female – whose influence shaped the politics, art, medieval literature, and perception of women...
Siege Warfare in Medieval Europe
Siege tactics were a crucial part of medieval warfare, especially from the 11th century CE when castles became more widespread in Europe and sieges outnumbered pitched battles. Castles and fortified cities offered protection to both the local...
The keep, located within a courtyard and surrounded by a curtain wall, was the heart of a medieval castle. The hall keep was a low building while the tower keep or donjon could have three or more floors and be topped by turrets and battlements...
Feast of William the Conqueror
A scene from the 11th century CE Bayeux Tapestry showing the celebratory feast of William the Conqueror after the Battle of Hastings in 1066 CE. In the centre is Odo, Bishop of Bayeux and probable patron of the tapestry. (Centre Guillaume...
Old Sarum, Wiltshire
An aerial view of Old Sarum, Wiltshire, England. The earthwork fortifications and the foundations of William the Conqueror's (r. 1066-1087 CE) Norman cathedral are still clearly visible today within this Iron Age hill fort.
William the Conqueror, Bayeux Tapestry
A scene from the 11th century CE Bayeux Tapestry showing William the Conqueror (second figure from the left) at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 CE. (Centre Guillaume le Conquérant, Bayeux, France)
In medieval Europe, a code of ethics known as chivalry developed which included rules and expectations that the nobility would, at all times, behave in a certain manner. Chivalry was, in addition, a religious, moral and social code which...
Castle Rising Castle
Castle Rising Castle, Norfolk, England. Originally a mote and bailey castle built by the Normans after 1066 CE, the keep was replaced with stonework in the 12th century CE.
Battle of Hastings, Bayeux Tapestry
A scene from the 11th century CE Bayeux Tapestry showing Norman cavalry charging Anglo-Saxon infantry at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 CE. (Centre Guillaume le Conquérant, Bayeux, France)
10 Great Castles in England & Wales
The Norman Conquest of 1066 CE brought sophisticated motte and bailey castle architecture to England but it was really in the 12th and 13th centuries CE that stone castle-building reached its zenith. Edward I of England (r. 1272-1307 CE...