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Battle of Red Cliffs
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Battle of Red Cliffs

The Battle of Red Cliffs (also known as the Battle of Chibi, 208 CE) was the pivotal engagement between the forces of Northern China led by the warlord Cao Cao (l. 155-220 CE) and the allied defenders of the south under the command of Liu...
Caroline Puzinas, discusses Akhenaten and Amarna
Videoby Past Preservers

Caroline Puzinas, discusses Akhenaten and Amarna

Caroline is a highly skilled archaeologist and museum specialist, as well as screenwriter and researcher in the fields of archaeology, history, paranormal phenomenon and ancient religion. She is keen to pursue professional development in...
Sundiata Keita
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Sundiata Keita

Sundiata Keita (aka Sunjaata or Sundjata, r. 1230-1255 CE) was the founder of the Mali Empire (1240-1645 CE) in West Africa. A prince of the Malinke tribe, Sundiata would not only overthrow the rule of the kingdom of Sosso (c. 1180-1235 CE...
Malcolm III of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Malcolm III of Scotland

Malcolm III of Scotland (aka Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) reigned as king from 1058 to 1093 CE. He took the throne after his young predecessor Lulach (r. 1057-1058 CE), the stepson of Macbeth, king of Scotland (r. 1040-1057 CE), was...
James I of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

James I of England

James I of England (r. 1603-1625), who was also James VI of Scotland (r. 1567-1625), was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and he unified the thrones of Scotland and England following the death of Queen Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603...
Emperor Gaozu of Tang
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Emperor Gaozu of Tang

Emperor Gaozu (also Kao-tsu, formerly Li Yuan, r. 618-626 CE) was a Sui military commander who led a rebellion against his former masters, seized control of the state, and founded the Tang Dynasty (618-906 CE). Overshadowed in the ancient...
Alexander the Great as a God
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Alexander the Great as a God

The age-old concept of the “divine right of kings” allowed that a country's ruler received his or her power or authority from God. However, few, if any, were delusional enough to actually believe themselves to be a god. An exception to this...
Jerash
Definitionby James Blake Wiener

Jerash

Jerash (aka Gerasa, Gerash or Gerasha) is the capital and the largest city of the Jerash Governorate in Jordan, but in ancient times it was one of the wealthiest and most cosmopolitan cities in the ancient Near East. Settled by humans as...
Edward I of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Edward I of England

Edward I of England reigned as king from 1272 to 1307 CE. Edward succeeded his father Henry III of England (r. 1216-1272 CE) and was known as 'Longshanks' for his impressive height and as 'the Hammer of the Scots' for his repeated attacks...
Jörmungandr
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Jörmungandr

Jörmungandr is the Midgard Serpent (also World Serpent) in Norse mythology who encircles the realm of Midgard. He is the son of the god Loki and the giantess Angrboða and brother of the great wolf Fenrir and Hel, Queen of the Dead. At Ragnarök...