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Robert II of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Robert II of Scotland

Robert II of Scotland ruled as king from 1371 to 1390 CE. Born Robert Stewart, he succeeded the heirless David II of Scotland (r. 1329-1371 CE) and so founded the royal house of Stewart. Dividing Scottish estates between his many offspring...
Byzantine Emperor
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Emperor

The Byzantine Emperor ruled as an absolute monarch in an institution which lasted from the 4th to 15th century CE. Aided by ministers, high-ranking nobility, and key church figures, the emperor (and sometimes empress) was commander-in-chief...
Malcolm III of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Malcolm III of Scotland

Malcolm III of Scotland (aka Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) reigned as king from 1058 to 1093 CE. He took the throne after his young predecessor Lulach (r. 1057-1058 CE), the stepson of Macbeth, king of Scotland (r. 1040-1057 CE), was...
Map of Mesopotamia, 2000-1600 BCE
Imageby P L Kessler

Map of Mesopotamia, 2000-1600 BCE

A general map of Mesopotamia and its neighbouring territories which roughly covers the period from 2000-1600 BCE reveals the concentration of city states in Sumer, in the south. This is where the first true city-states arose, although...
Egyptian Temple
Imageby Georges Perrot and Charles Chipiez (1883)

Egyptian Temple

General appearance of an Egyptian Temple. From A History of Art in Ancient Egypt, Vol. I by Georges Perrot and Charles Chipiez (1883).
Benin Ivory Hip Pendant Mask
Imageby The British Museum

Benin Ivory Hip Pendant Mask

A carved ivory hip pendant in the form of a mask. The kingdom of Benin (13-19th century CE) in West Africa (modern southern Nigeria). With bronze and iron inlays. Possibly depicting Queen Idia. Benin City, 16th century CE. Height: 24.5 cm...
Coin of King Ezana I
Imageby Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.

Coin of King Ezana I

A silver coin of Ezana I (r. c. 303-350 CE), king of the African kingdom of Axum (1st-8th century CE) on the coast of the Red Sea (modern Ethiopia & Eritrea). Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. http://www.cngcoins.com
Kushite Archers
Imageby The Creative Assembly

Kushite Archers

An artist's impression of the Kushite army - to which the archers in the foreground belong - in battle. The kingdom of Kush, situated in northern Africa, flourished between c. 1069 BCE and 350 CE. (From the PC game Total War: Rome II - Desert...
Sabean Army in Battle
Imageby The Creative Assembly

Sabean Army in Battle

An artist's impression of the Sabean army in battle. The kingdom of Saba was located in southern Arabia and flourished between the 8th century BCE and 275 CE. (From the PC game Total War: Rome II - Desert Kingdoms by the Creative Assembly)
Brass Manilla Currency
Imageby The British Museum

Brass Manilla Currency

A cast brass manilla from Nigeria, used as a currency in the kingdom of Benin (13th-19th century CE) and other West African states. Width: 6 cms. (British Museum, London)