The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Egypt for almost three centuries (305 – 30 BCE), eventually falling to the Romans. Oddly, while they ruled Egypt, they never became Egyptian. Instead, they isolated themselves in the capital city of Alexandria...
The Army of Alexander the Great
No military commander in history has ever won a battle by himself. To be successful he needs the support of a well-trained army who will follow him regardless of the cost whether it be a stunning victory or hopeless defeat. One need only...
Alexander the Great: A Case Study in Martial Leadership
History is not predictable; in many ways it can take on a life of its own. But sometimes, an individual's sheer presence is enough to bend history to his will. One such individual was Alexander the Great. Through his conviction, vision, mental...
Battle of the Granicus
The Battle of the Granicus in May 334 BCE was Alexander the Great's (356-323 BCE) first major victory against the forces of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexander had crossed the Hellespont with his combined Macedonian and Greek forces and stepped...
Arsinoe II Philadelphus
Arsinoe II (l. c. 318/311 - c. 270/268 BCE), daughter of Ptolemy I became one of the most enduring figures of the Lagid or Ptolemaic Dynasty and left an undeniable mark in the historical evidence. She was married three times; first to Alexander...
Sacred Band of Thebes
The Sacred Band of Thebes was an elite unit of the Theban army comprised of 150 gay male couples totaling 300 men. They were formed under the leadership of Gorgidas but first achieved fame under the general Pelopidas. They remained invincible...
Athens in the Hellenistic World
When we think about ancient Athens, it is almost always about the classical city. We think of such things as its numerous monuments (the Parthenon on the Acropolis for example), beautifying everywhere, the Agora swarming with people doing...
Hellenistic & Roman Agora of Athens
Pericles’ agora of Athens flourished under Macedonian control. After Macedon was defeated by Rome, the Romans added to the district even before Greece was taken as a province and more so afterwards. The Roman version of the agora continued...
Coin of Philip V of Macedon
Philip V of Macedon, 221–179 BCE, coin in British Museum.
We have prepared one lesson plan including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Open questions adaptable for debates, presentations, and essays Recommended resources to provide you and your students with...