Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire officially lasted from 962 to 1806. It was one of Europe’s largest medieval and early modern states, but its power base was unstable and continually shifting. The Holy Roman Empire was not a unitary state, but a confederation...
The Battle of Hattin, 1187 CE
An illustration from the 13th century CE Chronica majora by Michael Paris showing a scene from the Battle of Hattin in 1187 CE. On the left is the Muslim leader Saladin who faces and takes from King Guy of Jerusalem the True Cross. (Corpus...
Jesus Christ is the designation of Jesus of Nazareth (d. c. 30 CE), who was an itinerant Jewish prophet from the Galilee in northern Israel. He preached the imminent intervention in human affairs by the God of the Jews, when God would establish...
Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
The Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069-525 BCE) is the era following the New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1570-c.1069 BCE) and preceding the Late Period (c.525-332 BCE). Egyptian history was divided into eras of 'kingdoms' and 'intermediate periods'...
Kingdom of Kush
We have prepared three lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Multiple choice quiz questions in an excel format. Glossary of keywords and concepts in an excel format. Open questions...
Solomon's Temple, Jerusalem
An artist's impression of what Solomon's temple at Jerusalem may have looked like. Built by Phoenician architects it is described in I Kings Ch. 6-7 of the Bible and was typical of temples of the region at that time in the 10th century BCE.
Old City, Jerusalem
Map of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Western Wall in Jerusalem
The Western Wall in Jerusalem has been the center of Jewish learning and memory for over 2,000 years. As the only fragment of the Great Temple to survive the Roman destruction in 68 CE, the wall is omnipresent in the historical Jewish consciousness...
Star of David on the Walls of Jerusalem
The star is located near the New Gate on the northern part of the walls of Jerusalem.
Reconstructed section of the Cardo Maximus of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
Reconstructed southern section of the Cardo Maximus of Jerusalem. Paved and lined with columns, the Cardo Maximus was the main road that ran through the Roman and Byzantine city and also served as the center for the local economy. This portion...