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Etymologiae
Definitionby Laurence Leech

Etymologiae

The Etymologiae (Etymologies) is a Latin work by Isidore of Seville (l. c. 560 - 636 CE), compiled in the early 7th century CE and published in its final form shortly after his death. The book is a type of medieval encyclopedia and is a survey...
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

The Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) is considered ancient Egypt's Classical Age during which it produced some of its greatest works of art and literature. Scholars remain divided on which dynasties constitute the Middle Kingdom as some argue...
Enheduanna
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Enheduanna

The Akkadian poet Enheduanna (l. 2285-2250 BCE) is the world's first author known by name and was the daughter of Sargon of Akkad (Sargon the Great, r. 2334-2279 BCE). Whether Enheduanna was, in fact, a blood relative of Sargon's or the title...
Setna II: A Detailed Summary & Commentary
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Setna II: A Detailed Summary & Commentary

Setna II (also Setna Khaemaus and Si-Osire) is a work of ancient Egyptian literature from Roman Egypt (30 BCE - 646 CE) written in demotic script. It is part of a cycle of stories known as the Tales of Prince Setna featuring a character based...
Oracle Bones
Definitionby Emily Mark

Oracle Bones

Oracle Bones (also known as Dragon's Bones) were the shoulder blades of oxen or plastrons of turtles (the flat, underside of the turtle's shell) which were used in the Shang Dynasty of China (c. 1600-1046 BCE) for divination. The symbols...
Tang Dynasty
Definitionby Emily Mark

Tang Dynasty

The Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) was one of the greatest in Imperial Chinese history. It was a golden age of reform and cultural advancement which lay the foundation for policies which are still observed in China today. The second emperor, Taizong...
Sappho of Lesbos
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Sappho of Lesbos

Sappho of Lesbos (l. c. 620-570 BCE) was a lyric poet whose work was so popular in ancient Greece that she was honored in statuary, coinage, and pottery centuries after her death. Little remains of her work, and these fragments suggest she...
Lancelot
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Lancelot

Lancelot, also known as Sir Lancelot and Lancelot du Lac (“Lancelot of the Lake”) is the greatest knight of King Arthur's court and lover of Arthur's wife, Queen Guinevere, best known from Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte D'Arthur (1469 CE...
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor of Aquitaine (l. c. 1122-1204 CE) was one of the most impressive and powerful figures of the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) – male or female – whose influence shaped the politics, art, medieval literature, and perception of women...
Christine de Pizan
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Christine de Pizan

Christine de Pizan (also given as Christine de Pisan, l. 1364 - c. 1430 CE) was the first female professional writer of the Middle Ages and the first woman of letters in France. She was born in Venice, Italy but her family soon moved to France...
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