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Ancient Egyptian Government
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Government

The government of ancient Egypt was a theocratic monarchy as the king ruled by a mandate from the gods, initially was seen as an intermediary between human beings and the divine, and was supposed to represent the gods' will through the laws...
Saladin & the Unification of the Muslim Front: 1169-1187 CE
Articleby Syed Muhammad Khan

Saladin & the Unification of the Muslim Front: 1169-1187 CE

Saladin (c. 1137 – 1193 CE), the Muslim ruler who crushed the mighty Crusader army at the Horns of Hattin (1187 CE) and re-took Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader control, was born in a world where the disunity of the Muslims had...
Ancient Egyptian Architecture
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Architecture

Ancient Egyptian architecture is often associated closely with the pyramids of Giza but was actually quite diverse, taking a number of forms in the construction of administrative buildings, temples, tombs, palaces, and the private homes of...
Second Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Second Crusade

The Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE) was a military campaign organised by the Pope and European nobles to recapture the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia which had fallen in 1144 CE to the Muslim Seljuk Turks. Despite an army of 60,000 and the presence...
Ancient Egyptian Warfare
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Warfare

The Narmer Palette, an ancient Egyptian ceremonial engraving, depicts the great king Narmer (c. 3150 BCE) conquering his enemies with the support and approval of his gods. This piece, dating from c. 3200-3000 BCE, was initially thought to...
Israel
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Israel

The Kingdom of Israel occupied that part of the land on the Mediterranean Sea known as the Levant which corresponds roughly to the State of Israel of modern times. The region was known, historically, as part of Canaan, as Phoenicia, as Palestine...
Kingdom of Saba
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Kingdom of Saba

Saba (also given as Sheba) was a kingdom in southern Arabia (region of modern-day Yemen) which flourished between the 8th century BCE and 275 CE when it was conquered by the neighboring Himyarites. Although these are the most commonly accepted...
Early Judaism
Articleby William Brown

Early Judaism

During the period of early Judaism (6th century BCE - 70 CE), Judean religion began to develop ideas which diverged significantly from 10th-to-7th-centuries BCE Israelite and Judean religion. In particular, this period marks a significant...
Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

The Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782 - c.1570 BCE) is the era following the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE) and preceding the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE). As with all historical designations of the eras of Egyptian history, the...
The Bar-Kochba Revolt
Definitionby Benjamin Kerstein

The Bar-Kochba Revolt

The Bar Kochba Revolt (132–136 CE) was the third and final war between the Jewish people and the Roman Empire. It followed a long period of tension and violence, marked by the first Jewish uprising of 66-70 CE, which ended with the destruction...