1204: The Sack of Constantinople
In 1204 CE the unthinkable happened and Constantinople, after nine centuries of withstanding all comers, was brutally sacked. Even more startling was the fact that the perpetrators were not any of the traditional enemies of the Byzantine...
Crusader States 1200 CE
This map shows the crusader states c. 1200 CE.
The Levant, 1263 CE
A map showing the various states of the Levant c. 1263 CE. Light Blue: Mamluk Sultanate Dark Blue: Latin East
A History of the Crusades
The Crusades were a series of military campaigns waged between Christians and Muslims, Christians and pagans (the Northern Crusades), and Christians against Christians (the Fourth Crusade and the Albigensian Crusade). This complex series...
Mutapa (aka Matapa, Mwenemutapa, and Monomotapa) was a southern African kingdom located in the north of modern Zimbabwe along the Zambezi River which flourished between the mid-15th and mid-17th century CE. Although sometimes described as...
The Oyo Empire flourished from the 17th to 19th century CE in what is today southwest Nigeria. The Oyo forged an empire thanks to their formidable cavalry units and so came to dominate other Yoruba peoples of the region. The Oyo Empire, with...
Kim Yu-sin (aka Kim Yushin, 595-673 CE) was a general of the Silla kingdom which ruled south-eastern Korea during the Three Kingdoms Period. Kim would greatly help Silla unify Korea, famously leading a massive army to crush the rival kingdom...
Crusaders at the Walls of Jerusalem
A 19th century CE painting by Francesco Hayez of the First Crusaders at the walls of Jerusalem in 1099 CE. (Royal Palace of Turin, Italy)
The Life of Jesus of Nazareth in the Gospels
The only sources for the life of Jesus of Nazareth are in the canonical gospels (or the gospels that were included in the authorised version of the New Testament). We have no contemporary, eyewitness testimony from the time that he lived...
Ancient Egyptian Art
The artworks of ancient Egypt have fascinated people for thousands of years. The early Greek and later Roman artists were influenced by Egyptian techniques and their art would inspire those of other cultures up to the present day. Many artists...