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Illustration of St. Cyril of Jerusalem
Imageby James Blake Wiener

Illustration of St. Cyril of Jerusalem

This Armenian catechism book of manuscripts dates from the 18th century CE. The illustration (left) depicts St. Cyril of Jerusalem (c. 313-386 CE) who was a distinguished theologian of the early Christian Church. (Mesrop Mashtots Institute...
Reconstructed section of the Cardo Maximus of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
Imageby Carole Raddato

Reconstructed section of the Cardo Maximus of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)

Reconstructed southern section of the Cardo Maximus of Jerusalem. Paved and lined with columns, the Cardo Maximus was the main road that ran through the Roman and Byzantine city and also served as the center for the local economy. This portion...
Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Third Intermediate Period of Egypt

The Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069-525 BCE) is the era following the New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1570-c.1069 BCE) and preceding the Late Period (c.525-332 BCE). Egyptian history was divided into eras of 'kingdoms' and 'intermediate periods'...
Vikings TV Series Characters: History & Legend
Collectionby Joshua J. Mark

Vikings TV Series Characters: History & Legend

The History Channel's Vikings (2013-present) is historical fiction drawing on characters and events from the Viking Age (c. 790 - c. 1100 CE) and focusing primarily on the legendary Viking leader Ragnar Lothbrok and his sons. Created and...
Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians

Aethelflaed (r. 911-918 CE) was the daughter of King Alfred the Great of Wessex (r. 871-899 CE) and became queen of Mercia following the death of her husband Aethelred II, Lord of the Mercians (r. 883-911 CE). She is best known as the “Lady...
Memphis (Ancient Egypt)
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Memphis (Ancient Egypt)

Memphis was one of the oldest and most important cities in ancient Egypt, located at the entrance to the Nile River Valley near the Giza plateau. It served as the capital of ancient Egypt and an important religious cult center. The original...
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Definitionby Antoine Simonin

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom

The Greco-Bactrian kingdom refers to several dynasties and probably kingdoms of Greco-Macedonian monarchs who ruled over Bactria from 250 to 130 BCE. Foundation The Greco-Bactrian kingdom appeared in 250 BCE, when the satrap Diodotos...
Ancient Korea
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Korea

Korea, located on a large peninsula on the eastern coast of the Asian mainland, has been inhabited since Neolithic times. The first recognisable political state was Gojoseon in the second half of the first millennium BCE. From the 1st century...
Balhae
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Balhae

The Balhae (Parhae) kingdom in Manchuria (698-926 CE) was an important regional power which interacted both peacefully and otherwise with its neighbours the Unified Silla Kingdom of Korea and Tang China. The latter was a strong cultural influence...
Seventh Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Seventh Crusade

The Seventh Crusade (1248-1254 CE) was led by the French king Louis IX (r. 1226-1270 CE) who intended to conquer Egypt and take over Jerusalem, both then controlled by the Muslim Ayyubid Dynasty. Despite the initial success of capturing Damietta...