Ancient Rome Teaching Resource Bundle
This Ancient Rome Teaching Resource Bundle is a collection of teaching resources that can be downloaded for free – no registration required. Our teaching resources and lesson plans are adapted to students' different levels of ability...
Constantine X Doukas
Constantine X Doukas was the ruler of the Byzantine Empire from 1059 to 1067 CE. During his reign, the Byzantine Empire was attacked by emerging enemies on all sides, including the Normans in Italy and the Seljuk Turks in Armenia and Anatolia...
Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the...
Byzantine Empress Zoe
Mosaic from the Hagia Sophia in modern-day Istanbul (previously Constantinople), Turkey, depicting Zoe, empress of the Byzantine Empire from 1028-1050 CE. She was the daughter of Constantine VIII (r. 1025-1028 CE).
Hagia Sophia Panorama
The former cathedral and mosque Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (formerly Constantinople). Although some historians disagree (claiming Constantine laid the foundation), Constantius II is credited with building the first of three Hagia Sophias, the...
Remnants of Theodosius' Hagia Sophia
Remnants of Theodosios' Hagia Sophia. A lamb relief representing 12 apostles. 5th. century CE, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey. The first name of the Church was ‘’Megale Ekklesia’’ which means ‘’the Grand Church’’. The first Hagia Sophia...
Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos (Alexius Comnenus) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1081 to 1118 CE. Regarded as one of the great Byzantine rulers, Alexios defeated the Normans, the Pechenegs, and, with the help of the First Crusaders, the Seljuks...
Michael III, also known as “Michael the Drunkard” by his detractors, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 842 to 867 CE. Never quite escaping the shadow of his mother Theodora, who ruled as regent in his name until c. 855...
Matilda of Tuscany
Matilda of Canossa (c. 1046-1115), the Countess of Tuscany (r. 1055-1115) and Vice-Queen of Italy (r. 1111-1115), was the final head of the noble House of Canossa following the deaths of her father in 1052 and her elder brother in 1055. One...
Cilicia Campestris was one of the six districts of the Roman province of Cilicia organized by Pompey the Great (l. c. 106-48 BCE) in 64 BCE. The name translates roughly into “Cilicia of the Plains” and corresponds to the earlier...