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First Fitna
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

First Fitna

The First Fitna (656-661 CE) was the first civil war of the Islamic Empire fought between the fourth Rashidun Caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib (656-661 CE), and the governor of Syria, Muawiya (later Muawiya I; r. 661-680 CE). Deep fissures divided...
Spread of Christianity Map (up to 600 CE)
Imageby Karyna Mykytiuk

Spread of Christianity Map (up to 600 CE)

Map showing the spread of Christianity, showing both strongly Christianized areas before 325 CE and generally Christianized areas until 600 CE. The map also shows major Christian centers and the cities in which Christian councils were held.
Council of Clermont
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Council of Clermont

The Council of Clermont in central France was held in November 1095 and witnessed Pope Urban II's (r. 1088-1099) historic call for the First Crusade (1095-1102) to capture Jerusalem for Christendom from its Muslim occupiers. The Pope's speech...
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a state created in 1099 CE by Crusaders and western settlers after the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE). With Jerusalem as its capital, the kingdom was the most important of the four Crusader States in the Middle...
Roman Politics and Poetry: Cicero and Catullus
Videoby La Trobe University

Roman Politics and Poetry: Cicero and Catullus

The Roman love poet Catullus wrote passionate poems about his tempestuous relationship with 'Lesbia', as well as obscene diatribes about high profile contemporaries like Julius Caesar. In this vodcast Dr Rhiannon Evans and Dr Sonya Wurster...
Wine in the Ancient Mediterranean
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Wine in the Ancient Mediterranean

Wine was the most popular manufactured drink in the ancient Mediterranean. With a rich mythology, everyday consumption, and important role in rituals wine would spread via the colonization process to regions all around the Mediterranean coastal...
Fish Sauce in the Ancient World
Articleby Declan Henesy

Fish Sauce in the Ancient World

The production and trade of fish sauce in the ancient world was a significant and widespread industry, stretching from Britain to the Black Sea. Roman fish sauce, known as garum, was one of the most popular and commonly used ingredients in...
The Wars of the Roses: Consequences & Effects
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Wars of the Roses: Consequences & Effects

The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a dynastic conflict where the nobility and monarchs of England intermittently battled for supremacy over a period of four decades. Besides the obvious consequences of Lancastrian and Yorkist kings...
Causes of the Wars of the Roses
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Causes of the Wars of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a series of dynastic conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility of England. The 'wars' were a series of intermittent, often small-scale battles, executions, murders, and failed plots as the political...
The Coronation Ceremony of the British Monarchy
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Coronation Ceremony of the British Monarchy

The coronation ceremony of the British monarchy as we know it today involves many elements that have been a part of the pageantry ever since the 11th century CE. Such features of the ceremony carried out in Westminster Abbey since 1066 CE...
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