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Zoroastrianism
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism is the monotheistic faith established by the Persian prophet Zoroaster (also given as Zarathustra, Zartosht) between c. 1500-1000 BCE. It holds that there is one supreme deity, Ahura Mazda (Lord of Wisdom), creator and sustainer...
Islam
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Islam

Islam is an Abrahamic-monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullah (l. 570-632 CE, after whose name Muslims traditionally add “peace be upon him” or, in writing, PBUH). Alongside Christianity and Judaism...
Pre-Socratic Philosophers
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Pre-Socratic Philosophers

The Pre-Socratic Philosophers are defined as the Greek thinkers who developed independent and original schools of thought from the time of Thales of Miletus (l. c. 546 BCE) to that of Socrates of Athens (470/469-399 BCE). They are known as...
The Candaces of Meroe
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Candaces of Meroe

The Candaces of Meroe were the queens of the Kingdom of Kush who ruled from the city of Meroe c. 284 BCE-c. 314 CE - a number of whom ruled independently c. 170 BCE-c. 314 CE - in what is now Sudan. The title Candace is the Latinized version...
Augustine of Hippo
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (Aurelius Augustinus, 354-430 CE) was the first major philosopher of the Christian era. He was the Bishop of Hippo Regius in Numidia during the waning years of the Roman Empire, and his most famous work, The City...
Ahriman
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ahriman

Ahriman is the evil spirit in Early Iranian Religion, Zoroastrianism, and Zorvanism, Lord of Darkness and Chaos, and the source of human confusion, disappointment, and strife. He is also known as Angra Mainyu (evil spirit or dark spirit...
Ancient Syria
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Syria

Syria is a country located in the Middle East on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea and bordered, from the north down to the west, by Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, Israel, and Lebanon. It is one of the oldest inhabited regions in the world with archaeological...
Kievan Rus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Kievan Rus

Kievan Rus (862-1242 CE) was a medieval political federation located in modern-day Belarus, Ukraine, and part of Russia (the latter named for the Rus, a Scandinavian people). The name Kievan Rus is a modern-day (19th century CE) designation...
Kingdom of Saba
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Kingdom of Saba

Saba (also given as Sheba) was a kingdom in southern Arabia (region of modern-day Yemen) which flourished between the 8th century BCE and 275 CE when it was conquered by the neighboring Himyarites. Although these are the most commonly accepted...
Seleucid Empire
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (312-63 BCE) was the vast political entity established by Seleucus I Nicator (“Victor” or “Unconquered”, l. c. 358-281 BCE, r. 305-281 BCE), one of the generals of Alexander the Great who claimed a part of his empire after...
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