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Early Judaism
Articleby William Brown

Early Judaism

During the period of early Judaism (6th century BCE - 70 CE), Judean religion began to develop ideas which diverged significantly from 10th-to-7th-centuries BCE Israelite and Judean religion. In particular, this period marks a significant...
The Separation of Christianity from Judaism
Articleby Rebecca Denova

The Separation of Christianity from Judaism

In the mid-2nd century CE, Christianity began a gradual process of identity-formation that would lead to the creation of a separate, independent religion from Judaism. Initially, Christians were one of many groups of Jews found throughout...
Flavius Josephus
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Flavius Josephus

Titus Flavius Josephus (36-100 CE), was born Yosef ben Matityahu and became a 1st-century CE Jewish historian. He was a member of a priestly household in Jerusalem through his father’s side (the house and order of Jehoiarib), and his mother...
Passover in the Hebrew Bible
Articleby William Brown

Passover in the Hebrew Bible

Passover is a Jewish festival celebrated since at least the 5th century BCE, typically associated with the tradition of Moses leading the Israelites out of Egypt. According to historical evidence and modern-day practice, the festival was...
Ten Commandments
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Ten Commandments

The Ten Commandments introduce the legislation received by Moses on Mt. Sinai after the Israelites escaped from Egypt (as related in the biblical book of Exodus). The "ten commandments" is often used as shorthand for the basic rules that...
Old Testament Pseudepigrapha
Articleby William Brown

Old Testament Pseudepigrapha

The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha are the non-canonical writings of Judaism and Christianity ranging from the 5th century BCE to the 9th century CE. Pseudepigrapha comes from a Greek noun denoting writings with a false superscription or name...
Jerusalem
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Jerusalem

Jerusalem is the capital of the modern nation of Israel and a major holy city for the three Western traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It sits on spurs of bedrock between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea area. To the north...
LGBTQ in Early Christianity
Articleby Rebecca Denova

LGBTQ in Early Christianity

In modern debates concerning homosexuality, same-sex marriages, and gender identification, it is popular to turn to the Bible for passages to validate a position. Modern culture attributes many elements in understanding homosexuality, but...
Jesus & the Law of Moses
Articleby Rebecca Denova

Jesus & the Law of Moses

New Testament studies now place Jesus Christ within the parameters of Second Temple Judaism in the 1st century CE, attempting to go behind the layers of later Christian theology and philosophy (such as the trinity) to understand how his message...
Kabbalah
Definitionby Benjamin Kerstein

Kabbalah

The term Kabbalah refers specifically to the form of Jewish mysticism that became widespread in the Middle Ages. However, in recent decades it has essentially become a generic term for the entirety of Jewish mystical thought. Literally meaning...
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