Umar ibn al-Khattab (r. 634-644 CE) was the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 CE, as the first four caliphs are referred to by the Sunni Muslims). He was an early convert of Islam and one of the close companions of the Islamic...
Kingdom of Jerusalem at the Time of the Crusades
This map depicts the Kingdom of Jerusalem (existed 1099-1291 CE), along with the Counties of Tripoli, Edessa, and Antioch.
Ecce Homo arch, a triple-arched gateway in Jerusalem
The so-called Ecce Homo arch, a triple-arched gateway, built by Hadrian (2nd century CE), as an entrance to the eastern Forum of Aelia Capitolina. The central arch was flanked by two smaller arches, one of which can still be seen inside the...
The Great Jewish Revolt of 66 CE
The Roman Empire in the early 1st century CE was often regarded as the perfect empire. The outstanding military prowess of the Romans was used to expand the empire, and once the territories were acceptably pacified, Roman political power...
The Knights Hospitaller was a medieval Catholic military order founded in 1113 CE with the full name of 'Knights of the Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem'. After their base was relocated to Rhodes in the early 14th century...
Battle of Hattin
The Battle of Hattin in July 1187 CE in present-day Israel was one of the great victories of Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE). The army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and its Latin allies were totally defeated and, shortly...
The Book of Jonah
The book of Jonah is the fifth book in the Christian canons and the Jewish Tanakh. It is one of 'Trei Asar' (The Twelve) prophets in the tanakh, and in Christian tradition as 'oi dodeka prophetai' or 'ton dodekapropheton' , Greek for "The...
Reconstructions of UNESCO World Heritage Sites
This gallery presents six digital reconstructions of UNESCO World Heritage Sites threatened by forces like climate change, terrorism, and urbanization. Included are sites ranging from Jerusalem to Micronesia, with dates spanning from antiquity...
The First Christian Missionaries
According to Luke's Acts of the Apostles, the last thing Jesus did before he bodily ascended to heaven was to commission the disciples to 'witness' to his teachings. 'Disciple' meant 'student' and was derived from the various schools of philosophy...
Paul the Apostle
Paul was a follower of Jesus Christ who famously converted to Christianity on the road to Damascus after persecuting the very followers of the community that he joined. However, as we will see, Paul is better described as one of the founders...