The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by popes and Christian western powers to take Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control and then defend those gains. There were eight major official crusades between 1095...
The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204 CE) was called by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) to retake Jerusalem from its current Muslim overlords. However, in a bizarre combination of cock-ups, financial constraints, and Venetian trading ambitions...
Queen of Sheba
The Queen of Sheba is the monarch mentioned in the Bible and then in later works who travels to Jerusalem to experience the wisdom of King Solomon (c. 965-931 BCE) of Israel first-hand. The queen is first mentioned in I Kings 10:1-13 and...
Solomon's Temple, Jerusalem
An artist's impression of what Solomon's temple at Jerusalem may have looked like. Built by Phoenician architects it is described in I Kings Ch. 6-7 of the Bible and was typical of temples of the region at that time in the 10th century BCE.
Old City, Jerusalem
Map of the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Capture of Jerusalem Panel of the Franks Casket
This is the back panel of the Franks/Auzon Casket. This panel depicts the capture of the city of Jerusalem in 70 CE by the Roman general (later Emperor) Titus. The inscription on this panel appears as a mixture of Old English, Latin, runes...
Illustration of St. Cyril of Jerusalem
This Armenian catechism book of manuscripts dates from the 18th century CE. The illustration (left) depicts St. Cyril of Jerusalem (c. 313-386 CE) who was a distinguished theologian of the early Christian Church. (Mesrop Mashtots Institute...
Reconstructed section of the Cardo Maximus of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
Reconstructed southern section of the Cardo Maximus of Jerusalem. Paved and lined with columns, the Cardo Maximus was the main road that ran through the Roman and Byzantine city and also served as the center for the local economy. This portion...
The Separation of Christianity from Judaism
In the mid-2nd century CE, Christianity began a gradual process of identity-formation that would lead to the creation of a separate, independent religion from Judaism. Initially, Christians were one of many groups of Jews found throughout...
Jesus Christ is the designation of Jesus of Nazareth (d. c. 30 CE), who was an itinerant Jewish prophet from the Galilee in northern Israel. He preached the imminent intervention in human affairs by the God of the Jews, when God would establish...