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Early Judaism
Articleby William Brown

Early Judaism

During the period of early Judaism (6th century BCE - 70 CE), Judean religion began to develop ideas which diverged significantly from 10th-to-7th-centuries BCE Israelite and Judean religion. In particular, this period marks a significant...
The Bar-Kochba Revolt
Definitionby Benjamin Kerstein

The Bar-Kochba Revolt

The Bar Kochba Revolt (132–136 CE) was the third and final war between the Jewish people and the Roman Empire. It followed a long period of tension and violence, marked by the first Jewish uprising of 66-70 CE, which ended with the destruction...
Battle of Marj Ayyun, 1179 CE
Articleby Amin Nasr

Battle of Marj Ayyun, 1179 CE

The Battle of Marj Ayyun was a military confrontation fought near the Litani River (modern-day Lebanon) in June 1179 CE between the Christian Crusaders under the leadership of the king of Jerusalem Baldwin IV (r. 1174-1185 CE) and the Muslim...
Frederick II
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Frederick II

Frederick II (l. 1194-1250 CE) was the king of Sicily (r. 1198-1250 CE), Germany (r. 1215-1250 CE), Jerusalem (r. 1225-1228 CE), and also reigned supreme as the Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1220-1250 CE). He was born in Jesi in 1194 CE but spent...
Herod the Great
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Herod the Great

Herod I, or Herod the Great (c. 75 – 4 BCE), was the king of Judea who ruled as a client of Rome. He has gained lasting infamy as the 'slaughterer of the innocents' as recounted in the New Testament's book of Mathew. Herod was, though...
Legio X Fretensis
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Legio X Fretensis

Legio X Fretensis was a legion of the Roman army formed by either Julius Caesar or Augustus. The legion spent most of its existence in the East, primarily in Judea. It participated in Corbulo’s two Armenian campaigns as well as Vespasian...
Israel
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Israel

The Kingdom of Israel occupied that part of the land on the Mediterranean Sea known as the Levant which corresponds roughly to the State of Israel of modern times. The region was known, historically, as part of Canaan, as Phoenicia, as Palestine...
Palestine
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Palestine

Palestine in the ancient world was part of the region known as Canaan where the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah were located. The term `Palestine' was originally a designation of an area of land in southern Canaan which the people known as the...
Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire

Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire involved the Christian faithful travelling often huge distances to visit such holy sites as Jerusalem or to see in person relics of holy figures and miraculous icons on show from Thessaloniki to Antioch...
The Crusades: Causes & Goals
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Crusades: Causes & Goals

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by Christian powers in order to retake Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control. There would be eight officially sanctioned crusades between 1095 CE and 1270 CE and many...