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Greek Hoplite, Mykonos
Imageby Mark Cartwright

Greek Hoplite, Mykonos

A depiction of a Greek warrior. From a pithamphora manufactured in the second quarter of the 7th century BCE. The vessel was made on the island of Tinos in the Cyclades and found at Chora on Mykonos. (Archaeological Museum, Mykonos).
Epaminondas
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Epaminondas

Epaminondas (or Epameinondas, c. 420 - 362 BCE) was a Theban general who famously defeated Sparta at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BCE. The daring and brilliant pre-meditated tactics of Epaminondas earned a decisive victory over Sparta and...
The Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BCE
Articleby Grant

The Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BCE

After securing the eastern Mediterranean seaboard and Egypt, Alexander the Great pushed east into Mesopotamia with the intention of bringing Darius to battle. After crossing the Euphrates River unopposed, he marched his army eastward along...
Warfare & Battles in Ancient Greece
Quizby Patrick Goodman

Warfare & Battles in Ancient Greece

Darius I Cosmopolitan Delian League Diadochi Hoplite Hoplon Ionian Revolt Leonidas I Mardonius Miltiades Oblique Infantry Deployment Peace of Callias Pelopponesian League Phalanx Satrap Successor Themistocles Trireme Xerxes I
Pelopidas
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Pelopidas

Pelopidas (c. 410 - 364 BCE) was a gifted Theban general and leader of the elite Sacred Band who, along with Epaminondas, is credited with helping Thebes rise to its greatest power. Defeating the mighty Spartans in several battles Pelopidas...
The Athenian Ephebeia in the Lycurgan Period: 334/3-322/1 BCE
Articleby John Lennard Friend

The Athenian Ephebeia in the Lycurgan Period: 334/3-322/1 BCE

This dissertation examines the origin, purpose, and function of the Athenian ephebeia during the Lycurgan period (334/3-322/1 BCE). The ephebeia, a compulsory two-year long state-funded and organized program of military service for eighteen...
Peloponnesian War
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War fought between ancient Athens and Sparta (who won) and their respective allies came in two stages, the first from c. 460 to 446 BCE and the second and more significant war from 431 to 404 BCE. With battles occurring...
Elite Warriors in History
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Elite Warriors in History

Winning battles and forging empires was not just about numbers but also the quality of the troops at any commander's disposal. The best-trained, best-equipped and most experienced fighters could be moulded into devastating units that...
Funeral Stele of Artistion
Imageby Mark Cartwright

Funeral Stele of Artistion

Marble funeral stele depicting a hoplite soldier, signed by Aristokles (500 BCE), National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Etruscan Warfare
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Warfare

The Etruscan civilization, which flourished in central Italy from the 8th to 3rd century BCE, gained a reputation in antiquity for being party-loving pushovers when it came to warfare, but the reality is somewhat different. History being...