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The Isaurians and the End of Germanic Influence in Byzantium
Articleby Michael Goodyear

The Isaurians and the End of Germanic Influence in Byzantium

Germanic influence reigned in the Roman Empire from the end of the 4th century CE through the 5th. Germanic individuals took important posts in the government and the military, and Germanic tribes penetrated ever further into lands that had...
Antonine Plague
Definitionby John Horgan

Antonine Plague

The Antonine Plague, sometimes referred to as the Plague of Galen, erupted in 165 CE, at the height of Roman power throughout the Mediterranean world during the reign of the last of the Five Good Emperors, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (161-180...
Frederick II
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Frederick II

Frederick II (l. 1194-1250 CE) was the king of Sicily (r. 1198-1250 CE), Germany (r. 1215-1250 CE), Jerusalem (r. 1225-1228 CE), and also reigned supreme as the Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1220-1250 CE). He was born in Jesi in 1194 CE but spent...
Gupta Empire
Definitionby Dola RC

Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire stretched across northern, central and parts of southern India between c. 320 and 550 CE. The period is noted for its achievements in the arts, architecture, sciences, religion, and philosophy. Chandragupta I (320 – 335 CE...
Roman Gaul
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Gaul

Roman Gaul is an umbrella term for several Roman provinces in western Europe: Cisalpine Gaul or Gallia Cisalpina, comprised a territory situated in the northernmost part of the Italian peninsula ranging from the Apennines in the west northward...
Roman Baths
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Baths

Roman baths were designed for bathing and relaxing and were a common feature of cities throughout the Roman empire. Baths included a wide diversity of rooms with different temperatures, as well as swimming pools and places to read, relax...
Roman Sculpture
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Sculpture

Roman sculpture blended the idealised perfection of Classical Greek sculpture with a greater aspiration for realism. It also absorbed artistic preferences and styles from the East to create images in stone and bronze which rank among the...
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Imageby Unknown Artist

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Part of Votive Panel of Jan Očko of Vlašim depicting Charles IV. Tempera on limewood, before 1371. National Museum, Prague.
Enemies of Rome in the 3rd Century CE
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Enemies of Rome in the 3rd Century CE

It has been said that the greatest enemy of Rome was Rome itself, and this is certainly true of the period known as the Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE). During this time of almost 50 years, over...
Wolof Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Wolof Empire

The Wolof (aka Jolof or Djolof) Empire was a state on the coast of West Africa, located between the Senegal and Gambia rivers, which thrived from the mid-14th to mid-16th century CE. The empire prospered on trade thanks to the two rivers...
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