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Empire of Nicaea
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Empire of Nicaea

The Empire of Nicaea was a successor state to the Byzantine Empire, or rather a Byzantine Empire in exile lasting from 1204 to 1261 CE. The Empire of Nicaea was founded in the aftermath of the sacking of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade...
Quaternion Eagle of the Holy Roman Empire
Imageby Jost de Negker

Quaternion Eagle of the Holy Roman Empire

Painted illustration of the quaternion eagle of the Holy Roman Empire, created by Jost de Negker in 1510 CE. It depicts the double-headed eagle crest of the Holy Roman Empire (adopted 1433 CE) with the banners of its towns. It became widely...
Fall of the Western Roman Empire
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Fall of the Western Roman Empire

To many historians, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century CE has always been viewed as the end of the ancient world and the onset of the Middle Ages, often improperly called the Dark Ages, despite Petrarch's assertion. Since...
Berengar II of Italy’s Submission to Otto the Great
Imageby Unknown

Berengar II of Italy’s Submission to Otto the Great

Berengar II (r. 950–961) of Italy submits to Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (962-973), labelled here as Teutonicorum rex, or King of the Germans, in 964. From the Chronicle of Bishop Otto of Freising (Manuscriptum Mediolanense), unknown artist...
Ancient Persia
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persia

Persia (roughly modern-day Iran) is among the oldest inhabited regions in the world. Archaeological sites in the country have established human habitation dating back 100,000 years to the Paleolithic Age with semi-permanent settlements (most...
Woodcut Portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV
Imageby Christoffel Jegher

Woodcut Portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV

Woodcut portrait of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1084-1105) by Christoffel Jegher, c. 1631-1633. The British Museum, London.
Maximilian II,  Holy Roman Emperor
Imageby Antonio Abondio

Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor

Depiction of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II (r. 1564-1567 CE) on a medal created by Antonio Abondio, 1575 CE. From the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, United States
Holy Roman Emperors Charles V & Ferdinand I
Imageby Anton Woensam

Holy Roman Emperors Charles V & Ferdinand I

Illustration of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (r. 1519-1556 CE) and Ferdinand I. The illustration depicts the Habsburg brothers Charles V (left) sitting by the imperial coat of arms, while Ferdinand (right) is flanked by the Habsburg coat...
Assyria
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Assyria

Assyria was the region located in the ancient Near East which, under the Neo-Assyrian Empire, reached from Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) through Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and down through Egypt. The empire began modestly at the city of Ashur...
Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire

Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire involved the Christian faithful travelling often huge distances to visit such holy sites as Jerusalem or to see in person relics of holy figures and miraculous icons on show from Thessaloniki to Antioch...
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