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Aristophanes
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Aristophanes

Aristophanes (c. 460 - c. 380 BCE) was the most famous writer of Old Comedy plays in ancient Greece and his surviving works are the only examples of that style. His innovative and sometimes rough comedy could also hide more sophisticated...
Gynaecological Instrument
Imageby Mark Cartwright

Gynaecological Instrument

A bronze gynaecological instrument, Roman, 1st century CE. (Archaeological Museum of Como, Italy)
Skull with Trephination
Imageby Jmh649

Skull with Trephination

A Neolithic (3500 BCE) skull showing evidence of a trephination operation - the removal of a part of the cranium to relieve pressure, used as a medical treatment for a variety of ailments from migraines to mental illness. The treatment was...
A Mesopotamian Tablet with Gynaecological Recipe Against Miscarriage
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

A Mesopotamian Tablet with Gynaecological Recipe Against Miscarriage

A medical recipe was written on this clay tablet to prevent miscarriage. It recommends that a women should wear for 3 days a particular species of dried edible mouse which has been stuffed with myrrh. Probably from Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq...
A Mesopotamian Tablet with Gynaecological Treatments
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

A Mesopotamian Tablet with Gynaecological Treatments

Recipes were written in cuneiform inscriptions. They concern conditions such as infertility and pregnancy. Probably from Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. Circa 600-400 BCE. (The British Museum, London)
Hippolytus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Hippolytus

Hippolytus is a tragedy written by Euripides (c. 484-407 BCE), one of the great Greek playwrights of the early 5th century BCE. As with many tragedies of the era, the central focus of Hippolytus is humanity's relationship with the gods. Hippolytus...
The Dexileos Stele: A Study of Aristocracy and Democracy in Greek Art
Articleby James Lloyd

The Dexileos Stele: A Study of Aristocracy and Democracy in Greek Art

The Dexileos Stele assesses the way that Athenian political thought penetrated all levels of society, showing the conflict that the aristocratic classes were faced with in trying to find their place within the Athenian Democracy. As a visual...
The Clouds
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

The Clouds

The Clouds is a comedy written c. 423 BCE by the Greek playwright Aristophanes (c. 448 BCE – c. 385 BCE). A failure at the Dionysia competition, finishing third out of three, it was revised later in 418 BCE but never produced in the author's...
Libraries in the Ancient World
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Libraries in the Ancient World

Libraries were a feature of larger cities across the ancient world with famous examples being those at Alexandria, Athens, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Nineveh. Rarely ever lending libraries, they were typically designed for visiting scholars...
Dogs & Their Collars in Ancient Greece
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Dogs & Their Collars in Ancient Greece

Dogs in ancient Greece are regularly depicted in art, on ceramics, in literature, and other written works as loyal companions, guardians, hunters, and even as great intuitive thinkers; all of these expressing the deep admiration the Greeks...
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