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Xerxes I
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Xerxes I

Xerxes I (l. 519-465, r. 486-465 BCE), also known as Xerxes the Great, was the king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. His official title was Shahanshah which, though usually translated as `emperor', actually means `king of kings'. He is identified...
A Visual Glossary of Greek Pottery
Articleby Mark Cartwright

A Visual Glossary of Greek Pottery

Alabastron (pl. alabastra) - a small jar for storing perfumes, named after the material (alabaster) the first examples were made from. They were often carried by a string looped around the neck of the vessel. Amphora (pl. amphorae...
The Life of Crates of Thebes in Diogenes Laertius
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Life of Crates of Thebes in Diogenes Laertius

Crates of Thebes (l. c. 360-280 BCE) was one of the most important Cynic philosophers of ancient Greece. He was born to a wealthy family in Thebes but gave away his inheritance after realizing the futility of material possessions and the...
Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC
Imageby William R. Shepherd

Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC

Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 BC. Inset: Reference Map of the Nile Delta.
The Legacy of the Ancient Greeks
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

The Legacy of the Ancient Greeks

The ancient Greeks left the world such an impressive legacy of ideas that many of them were seen for centuries in the civilizations that followed and, even today, cultures around the world continue to display many of the quintessential features...
Xenophon's Defense of Socrates
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Xenophon's Defense of Socrates

Xenophon (430-354 BCE) was an early disciple of Socrates and a contemporary of Plato. He is best known as the mercenary general who wrote The Anabasis, which relates his adventures in leading his men out of Persia and back to Greece after...
Beer in the Ancient World
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Beer in the Ancient World

The intoxicant known in English as `beer' takes its name from the Latin `bibere' (by way of the German `bier') meaning `to drink' and the Spanish word for beer, cerveza' comes from the Latin word `cerevisia' for `of beer', giving some indication...
Ancient Greek Medicine
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Greek Medicine

In ancient Greek medicine illness was initially regarded as a divine punishment and healing as, quite literally, a gift from the gods. However, by the 5th century BCE, there were attempts to identify the material causes for illnesses rather...
Magic in Ancient Greece
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Magic in Ancient Greece

For the Greeks magic (mageia or goeteia) was a wide-ranging topic which involved spells and evil prayers (epoidai), curse tablets (katadesmoi), enhancing drugs and deadly poisons (pharmaka), amulets (periapta) and powerful love potions (philtra...
Seven Against Thebes
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Seven Against Thebes

Seven Against Thebes is the third part of a trilogy written by one of the greatest of the Greek tragedians, Aeschylus in 467 BCE, winning first prize in competition at Dionysia. Unfortunately, only fragments of the first two plays, Laius...
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