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Gilgamesh
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Gilgamesh

Gilgamesh is the semi-mythic King of Uruk in Mesopotamia best known from The Epic of Gilgamesh (written c. 2150 - 1400 BCE) the great Sumerian/Babylonian poetic work which pre-dates Homer's writing by 1500 years and, therefore, stands...
The Eternal Life of Gilgamesh
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Eternal Life of Gilgamesh

The Epic of Gilgamesh is among the most popular works of literature in the present day and has influenced countless numbers of readers but, for the greater part of its history, it was lost. The Assyrian Empire fell to a coalition of...
New Gilgamesh Fragment: Enkidu's Sexual Exploits Doubled
Articleby Sophus Helle

New Gilgamesh Fragment: Enkidu's Sexual Exploits Doubled

Sometimes it is the smallest discoveries that have the largest impact. When Alexandra Kleinerman and Alhena Gadotti found a new fragment of the Epic of Gilgamesh in 2015 CE, it did not seem to be particularly impressive. The broken tablet...
The Mesopotamian Pantheon
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Mesopotamian Pantheon

The gods of the Mesopotamian region were by no means uniform in name, power, provenance or status in the hierarchy. Mesopotamian culture varied from region to region, from city-state to city-state and, because of this, Marduk should not be...
Ishtar
Definitionby Louise Pryke

Ishtar

Ishtar (Inanna in Sumerian sources) is a primary Mesopotamian goddess closely associated with love and war. This powerful Mesopotamian goddess is the first known deity for which we have written evidence. While largely unknown in the modern...
The Newly Discovered Tablet II of the Epic of Gilgamesh
Articleby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

The Newly Discovered Tablet II of the Epic of Gilgamesh

Surpassing all other kings, heroic in stature,       brave scion of Uruk, wild bull on the rampage! Going at the fore he was the vanguard,     going at the rear, one his comrades could trust! ...
Inanna
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Inanna

Inanna is the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, sensuality, fertility, procreation, and also of war. She later became identified by the Akkadians and Assyrians as the goddess Ishtar, and further with the Hittite Sauska, the Phoenician Astarte...
Utu-Shamash
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Utu-Shamash

Utu (also known as Shamash, Samas, and Babbar) is the Sumerian god of the sun and divine justice. He is the son of the moon god Nanna and the fertility goddess Ningal in the Sumerian tradition but was known as Shamash (Samas) to the Akkadians...
Inanna's Descent: A Sumerian Tale of Injustice
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Inanna's Descent: A Sumerian Tale of Injustice

The Sumerian poem, The Descent of Inanna (c. 1900-1600 BCE) chronicles the journey of Inanna, the great goddess and Queen of Heaven, from her realm in the sky, to earth, and down into the underworld to visit her recently widowed sister Ereshkigal...
Enki
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Enki

Enki (also known as Ea, Enkig, Nudimmud, Ninsiku) was the Sumerian god of wisdom, fresh water, intelligence, trickery and mischief, crafts, magic, exorcism, healing, creation, virility, fertility, and art. Iconography depicts him as a bearded...