The Byzantine Empire, often called the Eastern Roman Empire or simply Byzantium, existed from 330 to 1453. With its capital founded at Constantinople by Constantine I (r. 306-337), the Empire varied in size over the centuries, at one time...
Council of Clermont
The Council of Clermont in central France was held in November 1095 and witnessed Pope Urban II's (r. 1088-1099) historic call for the First Crusade (1095-1102) to capture Jerusalem for Christendom from its Muslim occupiers. The Pope's speech...
The Crusades: Causes & Goals
The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by Christian powers in order to retake Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control. There would be eight officially sanctioned crusades between 1095 CE and 1270 CE and many...
Map of the First Crusade Routes
"This map shows the main routes taken by those who joined the First Crusade. The appeal was made by Pope Urban II in November 1095 CE but crusaders did not set out until the following summer. One route went through Hungary crossing the Byzantine...
Egyptian Funerary Stele from the First Intermediate Period
This is a door-shaped limestone stele of a priestess of the goddess Hathor. First Intermediate Period, 2134-2040 BCE. From Egypt. (Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
Siege Warfare in Medieval Europe
Siege tactics were a crucial part of medieval warfare, especially from the 11th century CE when castles became more widespread in Europe and sieges outnumbered pitched battles. Castles and fortified cities offered protection to both the local...
The Coffin Texts
The Coffin Texts (c. 2134-2040 BCE) are 1,185 spells, incantations, and other forms of religious writing inscribed on coffins to help the deceased navigate the afterlife. They include the text known as the Book of Two Ways which is the first...
Roman Warfare & Battles
We have prepared five lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Multiple choice quiz questions in an excel format Glossary of keywords and concepts in an excel format Open questions...
Colossal portrait of Augustus
Colossal portrait of Augustus, 1st century CE. (Vatican Museums, Rome)
The Crusades: Consequences & Effects
The crusades of the 11th to 15th century CE have become one of the defining events of the Middle Ages in both Europe and the Middle East. The campaigns brought significant consequences wherever they occurred but also pushed changes within...