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Nara Period
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Nara Period

The Nara Period (Nara Jidai) of ancient Japan (710-794 CE), so called because for most of that time the capital was located at Nara, then known as Heijokyo, was a short period of transition prior to the significant Heian Period. Despite the...
Yayoi Period
Definitionby Tony Hoang

Yayoi Period

The Yayoi Period is one of the oldest historical periods of Japan spanning from c. 300 BCE to c. 250 CE, preceded by the Jomon Period and followed by the Kofun Period. The name Yayoi comes from the district in Tokyo where the first artifacts...
Medieval Japan
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Medieval Japan

The medieval period of Japan is considered by most historians to stretch from 1185 to 1603 CE. Stand out features of the period include the replacement of the aristocracy by the samurai class as the most powerful social group, the establishment...
Conflict Between the Temple and the Crown in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Conflict Between the Temple and the Crown in Ancient Egypt

The gods of ancient Egypt were worshipped as the creators and sustainers of all life. People acknowledged their supremacy and intimacy daily through rituals, amulets, and their labor for the king. Everyone, from farmers to craftsmen to merchants...
Heian Period
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Heian Period

The Heian Period of Japanese history covers 794 to 1185 CE and saw a great flourishing in Japanese culture from literature to paintings. Government and its administration came to be dominated by the Fujiwara clan who eventually were challenged...
Egypt in the Early Hyksos Period
Imageby Iry-Hor

Egypt in the Early Hyksos Period

Egypt and its political situation during the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782 - c.1570 BCE), in which the Hyksos held power in the North and the Nubians held power to the South.
The Kingdom of Kush
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Kingdom of Kush

Kush was a kingdom in northern Africa in the region corresponding to modern-day Sudan. The larger region around Kush (later referred to as Nubia) was inhabited c. 8,000 BCE but the Kingdom of Kush rose much later. The Kerma Culture, so named...
Esarhaddon
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Esarhaddon

Esarhaddon (reigned 681-669 BCE) was the third king of the Sargonid Dynasty of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. He was the youngest son of King Sennacherib (reigned 705-681 BCE), and his mother was not the queen but a concubine named Zakutu (also...
Police in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Police in Ancient Egypt

In any society, members of the community recognize they are required to restrain certain impulses in order to participate in the community. Every civilization has had some form of law which makes clear that the benefits of peaceful coexistence...
First Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095-1102) was a military campaign by western European forces to recapture the city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim control. Conceived by Pope Urban II following an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios I...
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