Louis IX Captured During the Seventh Crusade
A 19th century CE illustration by Gustav Doré showing the French king Louis IX (r. 1226-1270 CE) and his capture by the army of the Ayyubid Empire during the Seventh Crusade (1248-1254 CE).
Louis IX Departing for the Seventh Crusade
A 14th century CE illustration of Louis IX of France (r. 1226-1270 CE) departing Aigues Mortes for Egypt on the Seventh Crusade (1248-1254 CE).
Urban II at the Council of Clermont
A 15th century CE illustration by Jean Colombe of the Council of Clermont of November 1095 CE where Pope Urban II (r. 1088-1099 CE) famously called for the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE). (National Library, Paris)
Pope Urban II
A statue of Pope Urban II (r. 1088-1099 CE) who called for the First Crusade (1095-1202 CE). Clermont-Ferrand, France.
The Byzantine Empire c. 1090 CE
A map of the Byzantine empire at the end of the 11th century CE prior to the First Crusade.
Ancient Egyptian Culture
Ancient Egyptian culture flourished between c. 6000 BCE with the rise of technology (as evidenced in the glasswork of faience) and 30 BCE with the death of Cleopatra VII, the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt. It is famous today for the great...
The Narmer Palette (also known as Narmer's Victory Palette and the Great Hierakonpolis Palette) is an Egyptian ceremonial engraving, a little over two feet (64 cm) tall and shaped like a chevron shield, depicting the First Dynasty king Narmer...
Second Punic War
The Second Punic War (The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. The war involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. Hannibal led the Carthaginians, one of the most gifted...
Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
The Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782 - c.1570 BCE) is the era following the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE) and preceding the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE). As with all historical designations of the eras of Egyptian history, the...
Carthaginian Naval Warfare
The Carthaginians were famed in antiquity for their seafaring skills and innovation in ship design. The empire their navy protected stretched from Sicily to the Atlantic coast of Africa. Able to match the tyrants of Sicily and the Hellenistic...