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Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

The Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) is considered ancient Egypt's Classical Age during which it produced some of its greatest works of art and literature. Scholars remain divided on which dynasties constitute the Middle Kingdom as some argue...
Taking of Jerusalem by the Crusaders
Imageby Émile Signol

Taking of Jerusalem by the Crusaders

A 19th century CE painting by Émil Signol titled "Taking of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, 15th July 1099". Jerusalem was recaptured from the Muslims during the First Crusade, 1095-1202 CE. (Palace of Versailles, France)
Children's Crusade
Imageby The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Children's Crusade

This print depicts the Children's Crusade of 1212 CE. From a wood cut by Dutch monogrammist LIW, ca 1550-1580 CE. (Metropolitan Museum, New York)
Children's Crusade, 1212 CE
Imageby Gustave Doré

Children's Crusade, 1212 CE

A 19th century CE engraving by Gustave Doré of the Children's Crusade of 1212 CE.
Battle of Nicopolis
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Nicopolis

The Battle of Nicopolis in September 1396 CE, also known as the Nicopolis Crusade, was an attempt by French, Hungarian, and other European allies to curb the threat of the Ottoman Turks as they pressed ever westwards into Europe. Nicopolis...
Ancient Egyptian Warfare
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Warfare

The Narmer Palette, an ancient Egyptian ceremonial engraving, depicts the great king Narmer (c. 3150 BCE) conquering his enemies with the support and approval of his gods. This piece, dating from c. 3200-3000 BCE, was initially thought to...
Despotate of the Morea
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Despotate of the Morea

The Despotate of the Morea was a semi-autonomous appanage of the later Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines retook part of the Peloponnese in Southern Greece in 1262 CE, but the Morea was only officially governed by semi-autonomous despots of...
Ancient Egyptian Architecture
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Architecture

Ancient Egyptian architecture is often associated closely with the pyramids of Giza but was actually quite diverse, taking a number of forms in the construction of administrative buildings, temples, tombs, palaces, and the private homes of...
Medieval Knights: 12 of the Best
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Medieval Knights: 12 of the Best

The knights of medieval Europe were meant to be the finest fighting men of their age, even more important, they were expected to be pure in thought and deed, as exemplified in the chivalrous code which they (usually) followed. Here are the...
Pope Innocent III & the Albigensian Crusade
Imageby Unknown Artist

Pope Innocent III & the Albigensian Crusade

A medieval manuscript illustration showing Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) and the crusaders of the Albigensian Crusade in southern France (1209-1229 CE). (Chronicles of Saint-Denis, British Library, London)