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The Siege of Antioch, 1097-98 CE
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Siege of Antioch, 1097-98 CE

The siege of Antioch in 1097-1098 CE occurred during the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE) when the western Crusader knights were on their way to retake Jerusalem. The great metropolis of Antioch in northern Syria was heavily fortified, and it...
The Invention of the First Coinage in Ancient Lydia
Articleby Frank L. Holt

The Invention of the First Coinage in Ancient Lydia

Money may take many forms, from the digital code of cryptocurrency to the woodpecker scalps favoured in early California. People have also used cattle, cacao beans, cowrie shells, chewing gum, grain, and giant stones as money. Early cultures...
Gobekli Tepe - the World's First Temple?
Articleby Brian Haughton

Gobekli Tepe - the World's First Temple?

Located in modern Turkey, Göbekli Tepe is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. The discovery of this stunning 10,000 year old site in the 1990s CE sent shock waves through the archaeological world and beyond...
Ancient Roman Warfare
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Roman Warfare

With a huge reserve of resources in men and equipment and a culture geared for warfare, the Romans were relentless in expanding their borders and putting their neighbours to the sword. The Roman army, with its well-trained, well-equipped...
The Armour of an English Medieval Knight
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Armour of an English Medieval Knight

English medieval knights wore metal armour of iron or steel to protect themselves from archers and the long swords of opponents. From the 9th century CE, chain mail suits gave protection and freedom of movement until solid plate armour became...
The Weapons of an English Medieval Knight
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Weapons of an English Medieval Knight

The weapons of an English medieval knight in combat included the long sword, wooden lance with an iron tip, metal-headed mace, battle-axe, and dagger. Trained since childhood and practised at tournaments, the skilled knight could inflict...
Diodorus Siculus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Diodorus Siculus

Diodorus Siculus or Diodorus of Sicily (active 1st century BCE) was a Greek historian, known for his universal history Bibliotheca Historica. Originally, it was a 40-volume monumental work, covering the history of the Mediterranean region...
Ten Ancient Mesopotamia Facts You Need to Know
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ten Ancient Mesopotamia Facts You Need to Know

Mesopotamia is the ancient Greek name (meaning “the land between two rivers”, the Tigris and Euphrates) for the region corresponding to modern-day Iraq and parts of Iran, Syria, and Turkey. It is considered the “cradle of civilization” for...
A History of the Crusades
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

A History of the Crusades

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns waged between Christians and Muslims, Christians and pagans (the Northern Crusades), and Christians against Christians (the Fourth Crusade and the Albigensian Crusade). This complex series...
Sumerians
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Sumerians

The Sumerians were the people of southern Mesopotamia whose civilization flourished between c. 4100-1750 BCE. Their name comes from the region which is frequently – and incorrectly – referred to as a “country”. Sumer was never a cohesive...