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Roman Government
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Government

Western Civilization is forever indebted to the people of ancient Greece and Rome. Among the numerous contributions these societies made are in the fields of art, literature and philosophy; however, perhaps their greatest gift to future generations...
Umayyad Dynasty
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Umayyad Dynasty

The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 CE), the first dynasty to take the title of Caliphate, was established in 661 CE by Muawiya (l. c. 602-680 CE), who had served as the governor of Syria under the Rashidun Caliphate, after the death of the fourth...
Hamilcar Barca
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Hamilcar Barca

Hamilcar Barca (c. 285 – c. 228 BCE) was a Carthaginian general active in the First Punic War (264-241 BCE). He then quashed a rebellion closer to home between 241 and 237 BCE before returning abroad, where he successfully expanded...
Julius Caesar
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was born 12 July 100 BCE (though some cite 102 as his birth year). His father, also Gaius Julius Caesar, was a Praetor who governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, was of noble birth. Both held to the...
Roman Republic
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Republic

In the late 6th century BCE, the small city-state of Rome overthrew the shackles of monarchy and created a republican government that, in theory if not always in practice, represented the wishes of its citizens. From this basis the city would...
Erminia and the Shepherd Tapestry
Imageby Domenico Paradisi

Erminia and the Shepherd Tapestry

Designed c. 1689-1693 CE by Domenico Paradisi on commission by Cardinal Ottoboni, this tapestry depicts Erminia and the Shepherd. It is one of a series of tapestries from Gerusalemme Liberata (Jerusalem Delivered) portraying a romanticised...
Love, Sex, and Marriage in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Love, Sex, and Marriage in Ancient Egypt

Although marriages in ancient Egypt were arranged for communal stability and personal advancement, there is evidence that romantic love was as important to the people as it is to those in today. Romantic love was a popular theme for poetry...
Rashidun Caliphate
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Rashidun Caliphate

The first four caliphs of the Islamic empire – Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali are referred to as Rashidun (rightly guided) Caliphs (632-661 CE) by mainstream Sunni Muslims. Their tenure started with the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632 CE...
Pompey
Definitionby James Lloyd

Pompey

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military leader and politician during the fall of the Roman Republic. He was born in 106 BCE and died on 28th September 48 BCE. His father was Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo...
Roman Naval Warfare
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Naval Warfare

Military supremacy of the seas could be a crucial factor in the success of any land campaign, and the Romans well knew that a powerful naval fleet could supply troops and equipment to where they were most needed in as short a time as possible...
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