Battle of Marj Ayyun, 1179 CE
The Battle of Marj Ayyun was a military confrontation fought near the Litani River (modern-day Lebanon) in June 1179 CE between the Christian Crusaders under the leadership of the king of Jerusalem Baldwin IV (r. 1174-1185 CE) and the Muslim...
Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The popular view of life in ancient Egypt is often that it was a death-obsessed culture in which powerful pharaohs forced the people to labor at constructing pyramids and temples and, at an unspecified time, enslaved the Hebrews for this...
Map of the Crusader States, 1229-1240 CE
A map indicating the territories controlled by the Crusader States or Latin East from 1229 CE to 1240 CE after the Sixth Crusade (1227-1229 CE)
Thebes was the capital of Egypt during the period of the New Kingdom (c.1570-c.1069 BCE) and became an important center of worship of the god Amun (also known as Amon or Amen, a combination of the earlier gods Atum and Ra). Its sacred name...
Memphis (Ancient Egypt)
Memphis was one of the oldest and most important cities in ancient Egypt, located at the entrance to the Nile River Valley near the Giza plateau. It served as the capital of ancient Egypt and an important religious cult center. The original...
Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
The Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069-525 BCE) is the era following the New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1570-c.1069 BCE) and preceding the Late Period (c.525-332 BCE). Egyptian history was divided into eras of 'kingdoms' and 'intermediate periods'...
Thessaly and the Duchy of Neopatras
Thessaly was an independent state in medieval Greece from 1267 or 1268 to 1394 CE, first as the Greek-ruled Thessaly and later as the Catalan and Latin-ruled Duchy of Neopatras. Under its sebastokrators, Thessaly was a thorn in the side of...
Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib, or simply Ali, (l. 601-661 CE) was among the first Muslims, a cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad (l. 570-632 CE), and later reigned as the fourth Caliph of Islam from 656 CE to 661 CE, when he was murdered...
Karnak is the modern-day name for the ancient site of the Temple of Amun at Thebes, Egypt. The Egyptians called the site Nesut-Towi, "Throne of the Two Lands", Ipet-Iset, "The Finest of Seats" as well as Ipt-Swt, "Selected Spot" also given...
The Siege of Antioch, 1098 CE
A 15th century CE painting by Jean Colombe depicting the First Crusader's attack on Antioch in 1097-8 CE. (Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris)