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Immortality of Writers in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Immortality of Writers in Ancient Egypt

For the ancient Egyptians, life on earth was only one part of an eternal journey which continued after death. One's purpose in life was to live in balance with one's self, family, community, and the gods. Any occupation in Egypt was considered...
Egyptian Funerary Mask
Imageby Mark Cartwright

Egyptian Funerary Mask

Plaster inlaid with stone funerary mask from 3rd to 4th century CE. (Egyptian Museum, Castello Sforzesco, Milan)
Old Kingdom of Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Old Kingdom of Egypt

The Old Kingdom of Egypt (c. 2613-2181 BCE) is also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza...
Female Physicians in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Female Physicians in Ancient Egypt

A famous story from Greece relates how a young woman named Agnodice wished to become a doctor in Athens but found this forbidden. In fact, a woman practicing medicine in Athens in the 4th century BCE faced the death penalty. Refusing to give...
Karnak
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Karnak

Karnak is the modern-day name for the ancient site of the Temple of Amun at Thebes, Egypt. The Egyptians called the site Nesut-Towi, "Throne of the Two Lands", Ipet-Iset, "The Finest of Seats" as well as Ipt-Swt, "Selected Spot" also given...
The Rock-Cut Tombs of Qizqapan, Iraqi Kurdistan: Median or Achaemenid?
Articleby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

The Rock-Cut Tombs of Qizqapan, Iraqi Kurdistan: Median or Achaemenid?

O Creator of the material world, at what distance from the holy man (should the place for the dead body be)?" Ahura Mazda replied: "Three paces from the holy man". (Vend. 8. 6-7) In September 2009 CE, one of my relatives...
Writing
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Writing

Writing is the physical manifestation of a spoken language. It is thought that human beings developed language c. 35,000 BCE as evidenced by cave paintings from the period of the Cro-Magnon Man (c. 50,000-30,000 BCE) which appear to express...
Early Dynastic Period In Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Early Dynastic Period In Egypt

The Early Dynastic Period in Egypt (c. 3150 - c. 2613 BCE) is the beginning of the historical era of the country during which the regions of Upper Egypt (south) and Lower Egypt (north) were united as one country under a centralized government...
Fashion & Dress in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Fashion & Dress in Ancient Egypt

In 1851 CE, a woman named Amelia Bloomer in the United States shocked the establishment by announcing in her publication The Lily that she had adopted the "Turkish Dress" for daily wear and, further, provided readers with instructions...
Imhotep
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Imhotep

Imhotep (Greek name, Imouthes, c. 2667-2600 BCE) was an Egyptian polymath (a person expert in many areas of learning) best known as the architect of King Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara. His name means "He Who Comes in Peace" and he is the...
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