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The Soul in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Soul in Ancient Egypt

At the beginning of time, the god Atum stood on the primordial mound in the midst of the waters of chaos and created the world. The power which enabled this act was heka (magic) personified in the god Heka, the invisible force behind the...
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

The Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) is considered ancient Egypt's Classical Age during which it produced some of its greatest works of art and literature. Scholars remain divided on which dynasties constitute the Middle Kingdom as some argue...
Bastet
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Bastet

Bastet is the Egyptian goddess of the home, domesticity, women's secrets, cats, fertility, and childbirth. She protected the home from evil spirits and disease, especially diseases associated with women and children. As with many deities...
Grave Goods in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Grave Goods in Ancient Egypt

The concept of the afterlife changed in different eras of Egypt's very long history, but for the most part, it was imagined as a paradise where one lived eternally. To the Egyptians, their country was the most perfect place which had been...
The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys

The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys is an ancient Egyptian text in which the two goddess-sisters call the soul of the god Osiris to rejoin the living. The poem takes the form of a call-and-response liturgy and the dual entreaties of the...
Parthian Religion
Definitionby Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthian Religion

Parthian religion might be best described with two words: inclusive and evolving. As Parthia's empire held within it a variety of cultures, the Parthians wisely left each to their own beliefs and traditions, like the Seleucid Empire and the...
Visual Guide to Ancient Egyptian Gods
Image Galleryby Arienne King

Visual Guide to Ancient Egyptian Gods

This image gallery is a visual guide to the gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt. It includes depictions of many of Egypt's more iconic and widely worshipped deities, along with brief descriptions of their roles in Egyptian religion. Each...
Phoenician Religion
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Phoenician Religion

The Phoenician Religion, as in many other ancient cultures, was an inseparable part of everyday life. Gods such as Baal, Astarte, and Melqart had temples built in their name, offerings and sacrifices were regularly made to them, royalty performed...
Djed
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Djed

The djed is an ancient Egyptian symbol for stability which features prominently in Egyptian art and architecture throughout the country's history. `Stability' should be understood to mean not only a firm footing but immutability and permanance...
Nile
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Nile

The world's longest river, located in Egypt, the Nile flows 4,132 miles (6,650 kilometres) northward to the Mediterranean Sea (a very unusual direction for a river to take). It was considered the source of life by the ancient Egyptians and...
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