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Battle of Hattin
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Hattin

The Battle of Hattin in July 1187 CE in present-day Israel was one of the great victories of Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (r. 1174-1193 CE). The army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and its Latin allies were totally defeated and, shortly...
Pepper
Definitionby James Hancock

Pepper

Since antiquity, pepper has always been the most important spice in the world. It played a central role in the medicines of ancient India and China, became a critical component of Roman food, and remained central in the cuisine of medieval...
Krak Des Chevaliers
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Krak Des Chevaliers

Krak des Chevaliers (also spelt Cracs des Chevaliers, and known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad) is a castle in Syria originally built for the Emir of Aleppo in 1031 CE but acquired and extensively rebuilt by the Knights Hospitaller in 1144 CE...
Yamm
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Yamm

Yamm (from the Semitic word yam for 'sea', also known as Yam and Yam-Nahar) was the god of the sea in the pantheon of the Canaanite-Phoenicians. Depicted consistently as tyrannical, angry, violent and harsh, Yamm was the brother of Mot, the...
Germanicus
Definitionby Martini Fisher

Germanicus

Germanicus (15 BCE - 19 CE) was a commander in the Roman Empire with a glowing reputation in his time under the rule of the Emperor Tiberius. His position in the Roman Empire was a unique and important one. His marriage to Agrippina the Elder...
Juvenal
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Juvenal

Decimus Junius Juvenalis (l. c. 55-138 CE), better known as Juvenal, was a Roman satirist. He wrote five books, containing 16 satires, each of which criticized a different element of Roman society, whether it was poor housing, the patron/client...
Battle of Immae
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Battle of Immae

The Battle of Immae (272 CE) was fought between the forces of the Roman emperor Aurelian (270-275 CE) and those of the Palmyrene Empire of Zenobia (267-273 CE) resulting in a Roman victory and, ultimately, the capture of Zenobia and an end...
Eshmunazar II
Definitionby carinemahy

Eshmunazar II

Eshmunazar II (also Eshmunazor II) was a king of the Phoenician city of Sidon during the Persian period. He was the third king of his family, after his his father and his grand-father. He was the son of Tabnit and Amashtart, and the grand-son...
The Papyrus Lansing: Be A Scribe…Or Else!
Articleby Ivettza Sanchez

The Papyrus Lansing: Be A Scribe…Or Else!

The Papyrus Lansing is an ancient Egyptian document that dates to the reign of the Pharaoh Senusret III (also known as Sesostris III, and, arguably, the legendary Sesostris written of by Herodotus) the 5th ruler of the 12th Dynasty of Egypt...
Persepolis
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Persepolis

Persepolis was the capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire from the reign of Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE) until its destruction in 330 BCE. Its name comes from the Greek Perses-polis (Persian City), but the Persians knew it as Parsa...