The Armour of an English Medieval Knight
English medieval knights wore metal armour of iron or steel to protect themselves from archers and the long swords of opponents. From the 9th century CE, chain mail suits gave protection and freedom of movement until solid plate armour became...
The Weapons of an English Medieval Knight
The weapons of an English medieval knight in combat included the long sword, wooden lance with an iron tip, metal-headed mace, battle-axe, and dagger. Trained since childhood and practised at tournaments, the skilled knight could inflict...
Six Great Heresies of the Middle Ages
The medieval Church established its monopoly over the spiritual life of Europeans in the Early Middle Ages (c. 476-1000 CE) and consolidated that power throughout the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) and Late Middle Ages (1300-1500 CE). Along...
Episode 2: Clash of Titans | Crusades | BBC Documentary
Dr Thomas Asbridge offers a piercing examination of the Third Crusade and the two renowned figures who have come to embody Crusader war: Richard the Lionheart, king of England, and the mighty Muslim sultan Saladin, unifier of Islam. Drawing...
Death of King Władysław Jagiellończyk
Depicted here is the Death of King Władysław Jagiellończyk (r. 1424-1444 CE) at the Battle of Varna. This was a decisive moment in the Crusade of Varna, as the Turks under Sultan Murad II (r. 1421-1444 CE and 1446-1451 CE) won a decisive...
The Ottoman Sultanate (1299-1922 CE as an empire; 1922-1924 CE as caliphate only), also referred to as the Ottoman Empire, written in Turkish as Osmanlı Devleti, was a Turkic imperial state that was conceived by and named after Osman (l...
Baltic States 1100-1400 CE
This map illustrates the Baltic states in the period 1100-1400 CE.
The Danish Flag Descends From Heaven
Depicted here is the Battle of Lyndanisse (1219 CE), in which, according to legend, the Danish flag appeared to King Valdemar II of Denmark. This appears to be a reference to the cross appearing to Constantine I before the Battle of Milvian...
Pope Celestine III
Stained glass window in York Minster depicting Pope Celestine III (1191-1198 CE)
The Near East in 1135 CE
This map of the Near East in 1135 CE shows four Crusader States (marked with red crosses) in relation to other powerful kingdoms in the period between the first and second crusades.