Richard I of England
Richard I of England, also known as Richard the Lionheart (Cœur de Lion), reigned as king of England from 1189 to 1199 CE. The son of Henry II of England (r. 1154-1189 CE) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122-1204 CE), Richard was known for...
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire officially lasted from 962 to 1806. It was one of Europe’s largest medieval and early modern states, but its power base was unstable and continually shifting. The Holy Roman Empire was not a unitary state, but a confederation...
Kingdom of Jerusalem at the Time of the Crusades
This map depicts the Kingdom of Jerusalem (existed 1099-1291 CE), along with the Counties of Tripoli, Edessa, and Antioch.
How to Become a Medieval Knight
In medieval society a knight enjoyed a position of high status and often wealth, they were feared on the battlefield and known for their chivalry off it, but it took a long time and a lot of training to get there. Trained in weapons handling...
Crash Course History: The Crusades
In which John Green teaches you about the Crusades embarked upon by European Christians in the 12th and 13th centuries. Our traditional perception of the Crusades as European Colonization thinly veiled in religion isn't quite right. John...
The Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE
The Siege of Acre, located on the northern coast of Israel, was the first major battle of the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE). The protracted siege by a mixed force of European armies against the Muslim garrison and nearby army of Saladin, the...
The Eighth Crusade of 1270 CE was, like the Seventh Crusade (1248-1254 CE), led by the French king Louis IX (r. 1226-1270 CE). As previously, the idea was to attack and defeat the Muslims first in Egypt and then either reconquer or negotiate...
Episode 1: Holy Land | Crusades | BBC Documentary
Dr Thomas Asbridge presents a revelatory account of the Crusades, the 200-year war between Christians and Muslims for control of the Holy Land. The story of the Crusades is remembered as a tale of religious fanaticism and unspeakable violence...
The Crusades in 5 Minutes
A documentary summarising the Crusades.
The Plantagenets, sometimes referred to as the Angevin-Plantagenets, were the ruling dynasty of England from 1154 to 1485 CE. The name Angevin derives from the family's ancestral lands in Anjou, France and the term Plantagenet (perhaps) from...