Francis Drake's Circumnavigation of the Globe
The English mariner, privateer, and explorer Francis Drake (c. 1540-1596 CE) made his circumnavigation of the world between 1577 and 1580 CE. Only the second man to achieve this feat after the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (c. 1480-1521...
Causes of the Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) was an intermittent conflict fought between England and France that started when king Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE) squabbled with Philip VI of France (r. 1328-1350 CE) over feudal rights concerning...
Battle of Agridi (1232 CE)
Illustration of the Battle of Agridi (1232 CE), during the War of the Lombards, by Marek Szyszko. Courtesy of Medieval Warfare Magazine / Karwansaray Publishers.
Tebnine Castle, Lebanon
Crusader castle in the village of Tebnine, Lebanon. Photo taken 1983 CE.
Mural Towers, Krak des Chevaliers
Mural towers of the castle of Krak des Chevaliers, Syria. Originally built for the Emir of Aleppo in 1031 CE, the castle was given to the Knights Hospitaller in 1144 CE, who extensively rebuilt it.
Amalric of Jerusalem
A miniature painting of King Amalric of Jerusalem (r. 1163 - 1174 CE). From a manuscript Histoire d'Outremer, by William of Tyre (c. 1130 - 1186 CE). Made c. 1232 and 1261 CE. (British Library)
Montreal or Al-Shaubak Castle
The Montreal Castle (Al-Shaubak) in Jordan was a Crusader castle built by Baldwin I, king of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1115 CE. The castle protected the caravan routes from Damascus to Egypt.
Church of St. Anne, Jerusalem
The Church of Saint Anne in Jerusalem, a rare surviving Crusader church from the 12th century CE. Built c. 1140 CE when Jerusalem was the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, one of the Crusader States.
Richard III & Henry VII, Stained Glass Window
A stained glass window showing the two rivals for the throne of England at the end of the Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE). In 1485 CE at the Battle of Bosworth, Richard III of England (r. 1483-85 CE) was defeated and killed while the victor...
Battle Lines, Battle of Bosworth
The battle lines at the opening of the Battle of Bosworth Field, 22 August 1485 CE. In the battle, Richard III of England (r. 1483-85 CE) was defeated and killed while the victor Henry Tudor became Henry VII of England (r. 1485-1509 CE).