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Henry VI of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Henry VI of England

Henry VI of England ruled as king from 1422 to 1461 CE and again from 1470 to 1471 CE. Succeeding his father Henry V of England (r. 1413-1422 CE), Henry VI was crowned the king of France in 1431 CE but he could not prevent a French revival...
Richard II of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Richard II of England

Richard II of England reigned as king from 1377 to 1399 CE. The son of the late Edward the Black Prince (1330-1376 CE), Richard would succeed his grandfather Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE), but as he was only 10 years of age, he...
William I of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

William I of Scotland

William I of Scotland, also known as 'William the Lion' after his heraldic emblem, reigned from 1165 to 1214 CE. Succeeding his elder brother Malcolm IV of Scotland (r. 1153-1165 CE), William was faced with a shrinking kingdom, but he harboured...
William the Conqueror
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

William the Conqueror

William the Conqueror (c. 1027-1087), also known as William, Duke of Normandy, led the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 when he defeated and killed his rival Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings. Crowned King William I of England...
Battle of Bosworth
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Bosworth

At the Battle of Bosworth (aka Bosworth Field) in Leicestershire on 22 August 1485 CE, the Yorkist king Richard III of England (r. 1483-1485 CE) faced an invading army led by Henry Tudor, the figurehead of the Lancastrians. It was to be a...
Daily Life in Tudor England
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Daily Life in Tudor England

Life in 15th century CE Tudor England witnessed great changes as Henry VIII of England (r. 1509-1547 CE) swept away the monasteries and challenged the Catholic Church. Rebellions followed and even the Tudor line was threatened before Mary...
1453: The Fall of Constantinople
Articleby Mark Cartwright

1453: The Fall of Constantinople

The city of Constantinople (modern Istanbul) was founded by Roman emperor Constantine I in 324 CE and it acted as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire as it has later become known, for well over 1,000 years. Although...
Kievan Rus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Kievan Rus

Kievan Rus (862-1242 CE) was a medieval political federation located in modern-day Belarus, Ukraine, and part of Russia (the latter named for the Rus, a Scandinavian people). The name Kievan Rus is a modern-day (19th century CE) designation...
English Reformation
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

English Reformation

The English Reformation began with Henry VIII of England (r. 1509-1547 CE) and continued in stages over the rest of the 16th century CE. The process witnessed the break away from the Catholic Church headed by the Pope in Rome. The Protestant...
Elizabeth I of England
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I reigned as queen of England from 1558 to 1603 CE. Her 44-year reign was so long and packed with momentous events that the second half of the 16th century CE is now known as the Elizabethan era and still regarded as a 'Golden Age'...
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