Amalric of Jerusalem
A miniature painting of King Amalric of Jerusalem (r. 1163 - 1174 CE). From a manuscript Histoire d'Outremer, by William of Tyre (c. 1130 - 1186 CE). Made c. 1232 and 1261 CE. (British Library)
The Crusades: A Brief History of the Medieval Religious Wars
This video will give you a brief, yet detailed history of the Medieval religious wars known as the Crusades, beginning at the first crusade with the people's crusade led by Peter the Hermit, and working our way to the final official crusade...
Middle Eastern Power Shifts & the Trade of Pepper from East to West
Pepper has long been the king of spices and for almost 2,000 years dominated world trade. Originating in India, it was known in Greece by the 4th century BCE and was an integral part of the Roman diet by 30 BCE. It remained a force in Europe...
The Art of War
The Art of War (Sunzi bingfa) is a 5th-century BCE military treatise written by the Chinese strategist Sun-Tzu (aka Sunzi or Sun Wu). Covering all aspects of warfare, it seeks to advise commanders on how to prepare, mobilise, attack, defend...
Chinese Warring States, 3rd century BCE
A map showing the principle state of the Warring States Period in China c. 260 BCE.
Knife Money from Ancient China
Knife money of the Warring States period retained some features of the real tools, including the ring and the strengethening ridges on the handle. The States in the north and north-east issued knife money. 1. Zhao State, circa 500 BCE...
Warring States Helmet
A bronze helmet from the Yin state. Warring States Period (481-221 BCE).
Warring States Crossbow Trigger
The trigger and firing mechanism of a crossbow from the Chinese Warring States Period, 3rd century BCE (possible a century later during the Han Dynasty). Bronze inlaid with silver.
Warring States Period Swords
Swords of the Warring States Period (481-221 BCE) in China. The left sword is of iron while the other two are of bronze. (Shaanxi Provincial Museum, Xian, China)
Money of the Chu State, China
The Chu State in south-east China had a unique culture of its own, yet also interacted with other states. This is reflected in the variety of its coinage: small bronze coins (known as "ant-nose" money modelled on cowrie shells), spade money...