Xunzi (pronounced shund-zee, l. c. 310-c. 235 BCE) was a Confucian philosopher of the Warring States Period (c. 481-221 BCE) in China. He is also known as Hun Kuang, Hsun Tzu, Xun Tzu, and Xun Kuang. Xunxi translates as Master Xun and is...
Battle of Nicopolis
The Battle of Nicopolis in September 1396 CE, also known as the Nicopolis Crusade, was an attempt by French, Hungarian, and other European allies to curb the threat of the Ottoman Turks as they pressed ever westwards into Europe. Nicopolis...
The Siege of Acre, 1291 CE
A 19th century CE painting depicting the Knights Hospitaller defending Acre during the siege by the Mamluk Sultanate in 1291 CE.
The Battle of Hattin, 1187 CE
An illustration from the 13th century CE Chronica majora by Michael Paris showing a scene from the Battle of Hattin in 1187 CE. On the left is the Muslim leader Saladin who faces and takes from King Guy of Jerusalem the True Cross. (Corpus...
Ancient Chinese Warfare
In ancient China warfare was a means for one region to gain ascendancy over another, for the state to expand and protect its frontiers, and for usurpers to replace an existing dynasty of rulers. With armies consisting of tens of thousands...
The Northern or Baltic Crusades were military campaigns organised by popes and western rulers to convert pagans to Christianity in the 12th to 15th century. Unlike in the Holy Land, where military campaigns were aimed at liberating former...
Crac des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah El-Din (UNESCO/NHK)
These two castles represent the most significant examples illustrating the exchange of influences and documenting the evolution of fortified architecture in the Near East during the time of the Crusades (11th - 13th centuries A.D.). They're...
Taking of Jerusalem by the Crusaders
A 19th century CE painting by Émil Signol titled "Taking of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, 15th July 1099". Jerusalem was recaptured from the Muslims during the First Crusade, 1095-1202 CE. (Palace of Versailles, France)
Crusaders at the Walls of Jerusalem
A 19th century CE painting by Francesco Hayez of the First Crusaders at the walls of Jerusalem in 1099 CE. (Royal Palace of Turin, Italy)
The Siege of Antioch, 1097-8 CE
A 14th century CE illustration depicting the siege of Antioch of 1097-8 CE during the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE). (National Library of the Netherlands, The Hague)