Ancient China produced what has become the oldest extant culture in the world. The name 'China' comes from the Sanskrit Cina (derived from the name of the Chinese Qin Dynasty, pronounced 'Chin') which was translated as 'Cin' by the Persians...
Map of the United States, 1874
A map of the United States, showing each of its states, published by D.G. Beers & Co. in 1874. From the Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library.
Crusader States 1200 CE
This map shows the crusader states c. 1200 CE.
Krak des Chevaliers
The castle of Krak des Chevaliers, Syria. Originally built for the Emir of Aleppo in 1031 CE, the castle was given to the Knights Hospitaller in 1144 CE, who extensively rebuilt it.
The Knights Templar were established c. 1119 and given papal recognition in 1129. It was a Catholic medieval military order whose members combined martial prowess with a monastic life to defend Christian holy sites and pilgrims in the Middle...
The Near East in 1135 CE
This map of the Near East in 1135 CE shows four Crusader States (marked with red crosses) in relation to other powerful kingdoms in the period between the first and second crusades.
Church of St. Anne, Jerusalem
The Church of Saint Anne in Jerusalem, a rare surviving Crusader church from the 12th century CE. Built c. 1140 CE when Jerusalem was the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, one of the Crusader States.
Mural Towers, Krak des Chevaliers
Mural towers of the castle of Krak des Chevaliers, Syria. Originally built for the Emir of Aleppo in 1031 CE, the castle was given to the Knights Hospitaller in 1144 CE, who extensively rebuilt it.
Xunzi (pronounced shund-zee, l. c. 310-c. 235 BCE) was a Confucian philosopher of the Warring States Period (c. 481-221 BCE) in China. He is also known as Hun Kuang, Hsun Tzu, Xun Tzu, and Xun Kuang. Xunxi translates as Master Xun and is...
The Siege of Antioch, 1098 CE
A 15th century CE painting by Jean Colombe depicting the First Crusader's attack on Antioch in 1097-8 CE. (Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris)