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Battle of Marj Ayyun, 1179 CE
Articleby Amin Nasr

Battle of Marj Ayyun, 1179 CE

The Battle of Marj Ayyun was a military confrontation fought near the Litani River (modern-day Lebanon) in June 1179 CE between the Christian Crusaders under the leadership of the king of Jerusalem Baldwin IV (r. 1174-1185 CE) and the Muslim...
Saladin & the Unification of the Muslim Front: 1169-1187 CE
Articleby Syed Muhammad Khan

Saladin & the Unification of the Muslim Front: 1169-1187 CE

Saladin (c. 1137 – 1193 CE), the Muslim ruler who crushed the mighty Crusader army at the Horns of Hattin (1187 CE) and re-took Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader control, was born in a world where the disunity of the Muslims had...
Edessa
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Edessa

Edessa (modern Urfa), located today in south-east Turkey but once part of upper Mesopotamia on the frontier of the Syrian desert, was an important city throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages. A city within the Seleucid Empire, then capital...
The Capture of Jerusalem, 1099 CE
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Capture of Jerusalem, 1099 CE

The capture of Jerusalem from Muslim control was the primary goal of the First Crusade (1095-1102 CE), a combined military campaign organised by western rulers, the Pope, and the Byzantine Empire. After a brief siege, the city was captured...
The Armies of the Crusades
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Armies of the Crusades

The armies of the Crusades (11th-15th centuries CE), which saw Christians and Muslims struggle for control of territories in the Middle East and elsewhere, could involve over 100,000 men on either side who came from all over Europe to form...
The Crusades: Causes & Goals
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Crusades: Causes & Goals

The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by Christian powers in order to retake Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control. There would be eight officially sanctioned crusades between 1095 CE and 1270 CE and many...
Warring States Period
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Warring States Period

The Warring States period (481/403 BCE - 221 BCE) describes the three centuries when various rival Chinese states battled viciously for territorial advantage and dominance. Ultimately the Qin state was victorious and established the first...
The Assassins
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

The Assassins

The Assassins (aka Nizari Ismailis), were a heretical group of Shiite Muslims who were powerful in Persia and Syria from the 11th century CE until their defeat at the hands of the Mongols in the mid-13th century CE. Secure in their fortified...
The Siege of Acre, 1291 CE
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Siege of Acre, 1291 CE

The Siege of Acre in 1291 CE was the final fatal blow to Christian Crusader ambitions in the Holy Land. Acre had always been the most important Christian-held port in the Levant, but when it finally fell on 18 May 1291 CE to the armies of...
Second Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Second Crusade

The Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE) was a military campaign organised by the Pope and European nobles to recapture the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia which had fallen in 1144 CE to the Muslim Seljuk Turks. Despite an army of 60,000 and the presence...